The dorsal tubercle connects to the ventral tubercle with an excavated intertubercular bony plate

The dorsal tubercle connects to the ventral tubercle with an excavated intertubercular bony plate

It connects with the ventral tubercle by a thin, elevated bony ridge termed the intertubercular plate. An elevated ridge connects the midpoint of the caudal vertebral entire body to the posterior aspect of the dorsal tubercle. We time period this the submit-tubercular ridge . This ridge defines the ventral border of the caudal opening of the foramen transversarium. In C6-C7, the dorsal tubercle changes place from the earlier vertebrae, and realigns directly caudal to the transverse procedure. The submit-tubercular is current regardless of the place of the dorsal tubercle. The dorsal tubercle attaches to the transverse approach by a bony ridge, which gets progressively shorter as the two protrusions approximate.In the giraffe, the dorsal tubercle stays in the identical airplane as the ventral tubercle all through C2-C7.

journal.pone.0136708.g004

The dorsal tubercle offers as two discrete protrusions we phrase far more dorsal protrusion the accessory dorsal tubercle. The two the dorsal tubercle and the accessory dorsal tubercle are caudal thickenings of bony materials at the caudal margin of the vertebral physique.The dorsal tubercle connects to the ventral tubercle with an excavated intertubercular bony plate. This slim plate has an expanded notch in lateral see. The accent dorsal tubercle connects to the transverse procedure with an elevated bony ridge. This ridge turns into progressively a lot more well known from C3 to C7.In the okapi, the ventral tubercle of C3-five forms a vast rostral protrusion that connects with the dorsal tubercle. The ventral tubercle of C3 is strongly oriented rostrally, and re-orients progressively a lot more caudally on C4-C5. In C6, there is an expanded ventral plate, termed the ventral lamina. The ventral lamina is antero-posteriorly directed and the ventral edge of this plate is uniformly thickened.

In lateral check out, the ventral lamina has a central, round fossa. There is no distinct ventral tubercle in C6 or C7.In the giraffe, the ventral tubercle presents as an expanded protrusion cranially through C3-C7. The orientation of the ventral tubercle is uniform in C3-C5 as ventral, and re-orients a bit much more rostrally in C6-C7. There is no growth of the ventral lamina into a plate on C6 the dorsal and ventral tubercles persist as discrete, divided protrusions on the ventral vertebral body. The ventral tubercle is about equal-sized in C3-C6, and is somewhat shortened, but nonetheless current in C7.The ventral lamina of the atlas of the okapi is brief, and laterally has a medial constriction. The length of the dorsal and ventral arches is roughly equal to that of the odontoid approach of the axis. In the okapi, the shape of the vertebral physique in ventral check out differs all through the cervical vertebrae.