Ng the putative neuroprotective mechanisms of GUO in cerebral ischemia models.

Ng the putative neuroprotective mechanisms of GUO in cerebral ischemia models.

Ng the putative neuroprotective mechanisms of GUO in cerebral ischemia models. Even so, on account of limitations of our model of brain ischemia, further studies in other robust models, for example MCAO, are necessary to evaluate the international relevance of GUO neuroprotection against cerebral stroke. Acknowledgments We would like to thank to Dr. Rosalia Mendez-Otero for the scientific supervising. Author Contributions Conceived and created the experiments: GH DR CD AQ. Performed the experiments: GH DR CD D. Epigenetic Reader Domain Guerini Souza RA AQ. Analyzed the information: GH D. Guerini Souza LP AQ D. Onofre Souza. Contributed reagents/ materials/analysis tools: LP D. Onofre Souza. Wrote the paper: GH D. Guerini Souza AQ D. Onofre Souza. References 1. Lipton P Ischemic cell death in brain neurons. Physiol Rev 79: 1431 1568. 2. Brouns R, De Deyn PP The complexity of neurobiological processes in acute ischemic stroke. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 111: 483495. three. Donnan GA, Autophagy Fisher M, Macleod M, Davis SM Stroke. Lancet 371: 1612 1623. 4. Durukan A, Tatlisumak T Acute ischemic stroke: overview of major experimental rodent models, pathophysiology, and therapy of focal cerebral ischemia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 87: 179197. 5. Olmez I, Ozyurt H Reactive oxygen species and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Neurochem Int 60: 208212. 6. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 127: e6e245. 7. Danbolt NC Glutamate uptake. Prog Neurobiol 65: 1105. 8. Had-Aissouni L Toward a new function for plasma membrane sodiumdependent glutamate transporters of astrocytes: upkeep of antioxidant defenses beyond extracellular glutamate clearance. Amino Acids 42: 181197. 9. Malarkey EB, Parpura V Mechanisms of glutamate release from astrocytes. Neurochem Int 52: 142154. 10. Zadori D, Klivenyi P, Szalardy L, Fulop F, Toldi J, et al. Mitochondrial disturbances, excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation and kynurenines: novel therapeutic methods for neurodegenerative problems. J Neurol Sci 322: 187191. 11. Allen CL, Bayraktutan U Oxidative anxiety and its role inside the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke. Int J Stroke four: 461470. 12. Elkind MS Inflammatory mechanisms of stroke. Stroke 41: S38. 13. Nanetti L, Raffaelli F, Vignini A, Perozzi C, Silvestrini M, et al. Oxidative anxiety in ischaemic stroke. Eur J Clin Invest 41: 13181322. 14. Terpolilli NA, Moskowitz MA, Plesnila N Nitric oxide: considerations for the treatment of ischemic stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 32: 13321346. 15. Tarozzi A, Merlicco A, Morroni F, Bolondi C, Di Iorio P, et al. Guanosine protects human neuroblastoma cells from oxidative tension and toxicity induced by Amyloid-beta peptide oligomers. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 24: 297306. 16. Tavares RG, Schmidt AP, Tasca CI, Souza DO Quinolinic acid-induced seizures stimulate glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles from rat brain: effects prevented by guanine-based purines. Neurochem Res 33: 97102. 17. Schmidt AP, Bohmer AE, Schallenberger C, Antunes C, Tavares RG, et al. Mechanisms involved inside the antinociception induced by systemic administration of guanosine in mice. Br J Pharmacol 159: 12471263. 18. Schmidt AP, Lara DR, Souza DO Proposal of a guanine-based purinergic technique within the mammalian central nervous system. Pharmacol Ther 116: 401 416. 19. Petronilho F, Perico SR, Vuolo F, Mina F, Constantino L, et al. Protective effects of guanosine against sepsis-induced damage in rat.Ng the putative neuroprotective mechanisms of GUO in cerebral ischemia models. Nevertheless, due to limitations of our model of brain ischemia, further studies in other robust models, for example MCAO, are necessary to evaluate the international relevance of GUO neuroprotection against cerebral stroke. Acknowledgments We would prefer to thank to Dr. Rosalia Mendez-Otero for the scientific supervising. Author Contributions Conceived and developed the experiments: GH DR CD AQ. Performed the experiments: GH DR CD D. Guerini Souza RA AQ. Analyzed the data: GH D. Guerini Souza LP AQ D. Onofre Souza. Contributed reagents/ materials/analysis tools: LP D. Onofre Souza. Wrote the paper: GH D. Guerini Souza AQ D. Onofre Souza. References 1. Lipton P Ischemic cell death in brain neurons. Physiol Rev 79: 1431 1568. 2. Brouns R, De Deyn PP The complexity of neurobiological processes in acute ischemic stroke. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 111: 483495. 3. Donnan GA, Fisher M, Macleod M, Davis SM Stroke. Lancet 371: 1612 1623. 4. Durukan A, Tatlisumak T Acute ischemic stroke: overview of main experimental rodent models, pathophysiology, and therapy of focal cerebral ischemia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 87: 179197. five. Olmez I, Ozyurt H Reactive oxygen species and ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Neurochem Int 60: 208212. 6. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, et al. Heart illness and stroke statistics2013 update: a report in the American Heart Association. Circulation 127: e6e245. 7. Danbolt NC Glutamate uptake. Prog Neurobiol 65: 1105. 8. Had-Aissouni L Toward a brand new part for plasma membrane sodiumdependent glutamate transporters of astrocytes: maintenance of antioxidant defenses beyond extracellular glutamate clearance. Amino Acids 42: 181197. 9. Malarkey EB, Parpura V Mechanisms of glutamate release from astrocytes. Neurochem Int 52: 142154. ten. Zadori D, Klivenyi P, Szalardy L, Fulop F, Toldi J, et al. Mitochondrial disturbances, excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation and kynurenines: novel therapeutic techniques for neurodegenerative issues. J Neurol Sci 322: 187191. 11. Allen CL, Bayraktutan U Oxidative tension and its function in the pathogenesis of ischaemic stroke. Int J Stroke 4: 461470. 12. Elkind MS Inflammatory mechanisms of stroke. Stroke 41: S38. 13. Nanetti L, Raffaelli F, Vignini A, Perozzi C, Silvestrini M, et al. Oxidative stress in ischaemic stroke. Eur J Clin Invest 41: 13181322. 14. Terpolilli NA, Moskowitz MA, Plesnila N Nitric oxide: considerations for the therapy of ischemic stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 32: 13321346. 15. Tarozzi A, Merlicco A, Morroni F, Bolondi C, Di Iorio P, et al. Guanosine protects human neuroblastoma cells from oxidative tension and toxicity induced by Amyloid-beta peptide oligomers. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 24: 297306. 16. Tavares RG, Schmidt AP, Tasca CI, Souza DO Quinolinic acid-induced seizures stimulate glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles from rat brain: effects prevented by guanine-based purines. Neurochem Res 33: 97102. 17. Schmidt AP, Bohmer AE, Schallenberger C, Antunes C, Tavares RG, et al. Mechanisms involved inside the antinociception induced by systemic administration of guanosine in mice. Br J Pharmacol 159: 12471263. 18. Schmidt AP, Lara DR, Souza DO Proposal of a guanine-based purinergic method inside the mammalian central nervous technique. Pharmacol Ther 116: 401 416. 19. Petronilho F, Perico SR, Vuolo F, Mina F, Constantino L, et al. Protective effects of guanosine against sepsis-induced harm in rat.

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