Lease activity and 39?9 exonuclease activity and, as a component the MRE

Lease activity and 39?9 exonuclease activity and, as a component the MRE

Lease activity and 39?9 exonuclease activity and, as a component the MRE11A-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex, it plays an essential role in the cellular response to double strand breaks (reviewed in [59]). In mammalian cells, the MRN complex is also required for ATR-mediated phosphorylation of the SMC1 subunit of cohesin [60], and siRNA depletion of MRE11A in human cells results in cohesion defects [37]. The MRE11AD131N somatic mutant, which we uncovered in a serous EC, occurs at a highly evolutionarily conserved residue in the third phosphoesterase motif within the nuclease domain [61] and is predicted to impact protein function (Figure 1, and Table 2). The MRE11AD692Y mutant, in the DNA binding domain, is also predicted to be functionally significant (Table 2). Although intronic somatic mutations in MRE11A have been reported in microsatellite Title Loaded From File unstable endometrial cancers [62], [63], [64], to our knowledge, the present study is the first report of somatic mutations of MRE11A in microsatellite stable endometrial tumors (Table 2). Of note, the MRE11AD131N variant, which was somatic in our study, has also been observed as a rare population variant (TMP_ESP_11_94212851) in the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (URL: http://evs.gs. washington.edu/EVS/), with a minor allele frequency of 0.0233 in the EuropeanAmerican population. The mutual exclusivity or co-occurrence of somatic mutations in two or more genes can indicate functional redundancy or functional synergy, respectively. To determine the pattern of somatic mutations within cohesion genes in endometrial cancer,we combined the results of the present study with our previous analysis of the ATAD5 (hELG1) gene in this same cohort of ECs [44]. Although the number of mutated cases is small, we observed that somatic mutations in ESCO1 and ATAD5 tended to co-occur in endometrial cancer (P = 0.0102, two-tailed Fisher’s exact test), as did somatic mutations in ESCO1 and CHTF18 (P = 0.0011) (Figure 2, and Table 3). These observations raise the possibility that there might be functional synergy between ESCO1 and ATAD5 mutants, and between ESCO1 and CHTF18 mutants, in endometrial cancer. In this regard, it is noteworthy that somatic mutations in ESCO1 and ATAD5 tend to also co-occur in colorectal tumors (P = 0.000001) (Figure S7), based on an analysis of the publically available mutation data generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas [http://cbio.mskcc.org/ cancergenomics/]. An alternative, but not mutually exclusive, possibility is that the co-occurring mutations of cohesion genes in endometrial cancer may reflect an underlying hypermutable phenotype. We previously evaluated the cohort of 107 tumors in this study for microsatellite instability and MSH6 mutations [44], [52], both of which can give rise to hypermutability due to defective mismatch repair (MMR). Although three of the tumors with cohesion gene mutations in this study were either MSIunstable or MSH6-mutated (Figure 2), we observed no statistically significant association between mutations in sister chromatid cohesion genes and defects in mismatch repair (Table S4 and Table S5). In summary, we have identified rare, nonsynonymous, somatic mutations within ESCO1, CHTF18, and MRE11A in a subset of primary endometrial tumors. Future The assays. Thus, patients in the MC and NE groups had studies will be required to determine whether these mutations 1676428 are driver events that contribute to the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer.Supporting InformationFigure S1 RT-PCR analysis of 21 candidate human chromosomal inst.Lease activity and 39?9 exonuclease activity and, as a component the MRE11A-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex, it plays an essential role in the cellular response to double strand breaks (reviewed in [59]). In mammalian cells, the MRN complex is also required for ATR-mediated phosphorylation of the SMC1 subunit of cohesin [60], and siRNA depletion of MRE11A in human cells results in cohesion defects [37]. The MRE11AD131N somatic mutant, which we uncovered in a serous EC, occurs at a highly evolutionarily conserved residue in the third phosphoesterase motif within the nuclease domain [61] and is predicted to impact protein function (Figure 1, and Table 2). The MRE11AD692Y mutant, in the DNA binding domain, is also predicted to be functionally significant (Table 2). Although intronic somatic mutations in MRE11A have been reported in microsatellite unstable endometrial cancers [62], [63], [64], to our knowledge, the present study is the first report of somatic mutations of MRE11A in microsatellite stable endometrial tumors (Table 2). Of note, the MRE11AD131N variant, which was somatic in our study, has also been observed as a rare population variant (TMP_ESP_11_94212851) in the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (URL: http://evs.gs. washington.edu/EVS/), with a minor allele frequency of 0.0233 in the EuropeanAmerican population. The mutual exclusivity or co-occurrence of somatic mutations in two or more genes can indicate functional redundancy or functional synergy, respectively. To determine the pattern of somatic mutations within cohesion genes in endometrial cancer,we combined the results of the present study with our previous analysis of the ATAD5 (hELG1) gene in this same cohort of ECs [44]. Although the number of mutated cases is small, we observed that somatic mutations in ESCO1 and ATAD5 tended to co-occur in endometrial cancer (P = 0.0102, two-tailed Fisher’s exact test), as did somatic mutations in ESCO1 and CHTF18 (P = 0.0011) (Figure 2, and Table 3). These observations raise the possibility that there might be functional synergy between ESCO1 and ATAD5 mutants, and between ESCO1 and CHTF18 mutants, in endometrial cancer. In this regard, it is noteworthy that somatic mutations in ESCO1 and ATAD5 tend to also co-occur in colorectal tumors (P = 0.000001) (Figure S7), based on an analysis of the publically available mutation data generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas [http://cbio.mskcc.org/ cancergenomics/]. An alternative, but not mutually exclusive, possibility is that the co-occurring mutations of cohesion genes in endometrial cancer may reflect an underlying hypermutable phenotype. We previously evaluated the cohort of 107 tumors in this study for microsatellite instability and MSH6 mutations [44], [52], both of which can give rise to hypermutability due to defective mismatch repair (MMR). Although three of the tumors with cohesion gene mutations in this study were either MSIunstable or MSH6-mutated (Figure 2), we observed no statistically significant association between mutations in sister chromatid cohesion genes and defects in mismatch repair (Table S4 and Table S5). In summary, we have identified rare, nonsynonymous, somatic mutations within ESCO1, CHTF18, and MRE11A in a subset of primary endometrial tumors. Future studies will be required to determine whether these mutations 1676428 are driver events that contribute to the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer.Supporting InformationFigure S1 RT-PCR analysis of 21 candidate human chromosomal inst.

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