Mice) gradually lost weight and showed a significantly lower body weight

Mice) gradually lost weight and showed a significantly lower body weight

Mice) gradually lost weight and showed a significantly lower body weight, except the control mice (p,0.05) (F [4, 47] = 186.749; P,0.001) (Fig. 2). However, there was no significant difference in body weight among the other groups of mice.2. Neurochemical ResultsThe mice fed a TD diet showed significantly decreased hippocampal levels of tryptophan and 5 T compared with the C mice (p,0.05) (Tryptophan: F [4,42] = 6.813; P,0.000, 5-HT: F [4,42] = 3.355; P,0.018) (Fig. 3a, b). Regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, did not restore the hippocampal levels of tryptophan and 5 T to the control level. TD+CUS+IE mice showed significantly higher noradrenaline levels than the other groups of mice (F [4,42] = 3.449; P,0.043) (Fig. 3c).3. Behavioral ResultsIn FST (Fig. 4a), TD+CUS mice showed a higher immobility time than C and TD mice; however, there was no significant difference between C and TD mice. TD+CUS+ME and TD+CUS+IE mice showed significantly lower immobility time than TD+CUS mice. TD+CUS+IE mice showed significantly lower immobility time than the other groups (F [4,43] = 6.75; P,0.001). These findings suggested that depression-like behavior is attributable not to TD but to CUS, and that regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevented depression-like behavior induced by CUS. In SFT, the sucrose preference ratio of the control mice corresponded to the level of the sucrose preference ratio (70 ) ofFigure 3. 3-Bromopyruvic acid price Effects of tryptophan deficiency, CUS and regular exercise on the levels of tryptophan (a), 5-HT (b) and noradrenaline (c) in the hippocampus. Data are expressed as mean 6 SEM. *, p,0.05 vs. C; #, p,0.05 vs. C, TD, TD+CUS. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066996.gFigure 2. Effects of tryptophan deficiency, CUS and regular exercise on body weight. Data are expressed as mean 6 SEM. *, p,0.05 vs. TD, TD+CUS, TD+CUS+ME, TD+CUS+IE; , C; , TD; #, TD+CUS; m, TD+CUS+ME; g, TD+CUS+ IE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066996.gNthe non-stressed mice fed a normal diet, as reported in a previous study [20]. The mice fed a TD diet showed significantly higher sucrose preference than the C mice (p,0.05) (F [4, 48] = 5.592; P,0.001) (Fig. 4b). These findings suggested that TD could enhance sucrose preference with or without chronic stress. To examine the effect of TD feeding and CUS on learning and memory, all mice were subjected to ORT in the 4th week of the experiment. C mice showed a strong preference for a novel object, whereas TD and TD+CUS mice showed a significantly decreased preference for a novel JWH-133 web object compared with the C mice. There was no significant difference among C, TD+CUS+ME and TD+CUS+IE mice. In addition, TD+CUS+ME and TD+CUS+IE mice showed a significantly stronger preference for a novel object than TD mice (F [4,45] = 5.701; P,0.001) (Fig. 5). These findings suggested that the impairment of cognitive ability was attributable not to CUS but to TD, and that regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevented the impairment of learning and memory.Exercise Prevents Depression in TD MiceFigure 4. Effects of tryptophan deficiency, CUS and regular exercise in FST (a) and SFT (b). Data are expressed as mean 6 23977191 SEM. *, p,0.05 vs. C; 1, p,0.05 vs. TD; #, p,0.05 vs. TD+CUS; {, p,0.05 vs. TD+CUS+ME. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066996.gFigure 5. Effects of tryptophan deficiency, CUS and regular exercise on recognition index in object recognition. Data are expressed as mean 6 SEM. *, p,0.05 vs. C; #, p,0.05 vs. TD. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.00.Mice) gradually lost weight and showed a significantly lower body weight, except the control mice (p,0.05) (F [4, 47] = 186.749; P,0.001) (Fig. 2). However, there was no significant difference in body weight among the other groups of mice.2. Neurochemical ResultsThe mice fed a TD diet showed significantly decreased hippocampal levels of tryptophan and 5 T compared with the C mice (p,0.05) (Tryptophan: F [4,42] = 6.813; P,0.000, 5-HT: F [4,42] = 3.355; P,0.018) (Fig. 3a, b). Regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, did not restore the hippocampal levels of tryptophan and 5 T to the control level. TD+CUS+IE mice showed significantly higher noradrenaline levels than the other groups of mice (F [4,42] = 3.449; P,0.043) (Fig. 3c).3. Behavioral ResultsIn FST (Fig. 4a), TD+CUS mice showed a higher immobility time than C and TD mice; however, there was no significant difference between C and TD mice. TD+CUS+ME and TD+CUS+IE mice showed significantly lower immobility time than TD+CUS mice. TD+CUS+IE mice showed significantly lower immobility time than the other groups (F [4,43] = 6.75; P,0.001). These findings suggested that depression-like behavior is attributable not to TD but to CUS, and that regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevented depression-like behavior induced by CUS. In SFT, the sucrose preference ratio of the control mice corresponded to the level of the sucrose preference ratio (70 ) ofFigure 3. Effects of tryptophan deficiency, CUS and regular exercise on the levels of tryptophan (a), 5-HT (b) and noradrenaline (c) in the hippocampus. Data are expressed as mean 6 SEM. *, p,0.05 vs. C; #, p,0.05 vs. C, TD, TD+CUS. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066996.gFigure 2. Effects of tryptophan deficiency, CUS and regular exercise on body weight. Data are expressed as mean 6 SEM. *, p,0.05 vs. TD, TD+CUS, TD+CUS+ME, TD+CUS+IE; , C; , TD; #, TD+CUS; m, TD+CUS+ME; g, TD+CUS+ IE. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066996.gNthe non-stressed mice fed a normal diet, as reported in a previous study [20]. The mice fed a TD diet showed significantly higher sucrose preference than the C mice (p,0.05) (F [4, 48] = 5.592; P,0.001) (Fig. 4b). These findings suggested that TD could enhance sucrose preference with or without chronic stress. To examine the effect of TD feeding and CUS on learning and memory, all mice were subjected to ORT in the 4th week of the experiment. C mice showed a strong preference for a novel object, whereas TD and TD+CUS mice showed a significantly decreased preference for a novel object compared with the C mice. There was no significant difference among C, TD+CUS+ME and TD+CUS+IE mice. In addition, TD+CUS+ME and TD+CUS+IE mice showed a significantly stronger preference for a novel object than TD mice (F [4,45] = 5.701; P,0.001) (Fig. 5). These findings suggested that the impairment of cognitive ability was attributable not to CUS but to TD, and that regular exercise, whether moderate or intense, prevented the impairment of learning and memory.Exercise Prevents Depression in TD MiceFigure 4. Effects of tryptophan deficiency, CUS and regular exercise in FST (a) and SFT (b). Data are expressed as mean 6 23977191 SEM. *, p,0.05 vs. C; 1, p,0.05 vs. TD; #, p,0.05 vs. TD+CUS; {, p,0.05 vs. TD+CUS+ME. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066996.gFigure 5. Effects of tryptophan deficiency, CUS and regular exercise on recognition index in object recognition. Data are expressed as mean 6 SEM. *, p,0.05 vs. C; #, p,0.05 vs. TD. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.00.

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