R generating global profiles of serum antibody specificities [7]. The feasibility of

R generating global profiles of serum antibody specificities [7]. The feasibility of

R generating global profiles of serum antibody specificities [7]. The feasibility of using RPPDL and NGS to analyze antibody specificities of polyclonal sera was demonstrated recently by 10781694 profiling polyclonal sera derived from HIV infected individuals [8]. The authors demonstrated that a fraction of the most abundant peptides selected for binding to IgG 842-07-9 supplier antibodies of HIV positive sera could be aligned by a BLASTP analysis to the HIV protein thus indicating some HIV specificity. The drawback of using RPPDL for global profiling of serum antibody reactivity is the lack of information on the identities of the real antigens that are mimicked by the antibody-binding peptides. Identifying the targets of antibody immune response using peptide mimotopes is a difficult task, since most of epitopes recognized by antibodies are conformational and discontinuous and only a small fraction of antibodies are raised against linear or continuous epitopes. Furthermore, identifying even linear epitopesSerum Antibody Repertoire Profilingof unknown targets is also complicated since a BLAST search of protein databases retrieves hundreds of proteins that have a sequence match to a short peptide. In this work we demonstrate an algorithm, which we term in Silico Antigen Screen (SAS), for analyzing peptide profiles of serum antibody specificities generated by RPPDL panning and NGS. The algorithm can be used for identifying protein autoantigens if the unknown targets are recognized by antibodies directed against linear epitopes.Results Profiling the Immune Response in Mice Immunized With Human ProteinsPeptides selected for binding to serum antibodies in biopanning experiments can mimic linear (continuous) epitopes and conformational (discontinuous) epitopes of protein antigens. They also can mimic non-protein epitopes, such as the carbohydrate structures of glycoproteins or glycolipids, nucleic acids or other chemical structures. We hypothesized that the protein targets of humoral immune response can be identified using peptide profiles of serum antibody repertoires generated by NGS, and that peptides that mimic linear eptopes of proteins will be present among the profile-making peptides., Since for any short peptide the BLAST search of protein databases retrieves about a hundred of proteins that have matches to the peptide sequence, it is practically impossible to determine what kind of epitope the peptide was mimicking. However, the BLAST search for a large number of peptides can retrieve proteins that have multiple matches to different peptides. The probability for a protein to have multiple matches to different peptides due to a chance is proportional to the length of the protein. Therefore, the real protein targets of humoral immune response recognized by antibodies directed at the linear epitopes are likely to have the higher number of matches per protein length that the proteins that have matches to peptides due to a chance. To test this hypothesis, we used the sera of mice immunized with human proteins, 94-09-7 biological activity prostate specific antigen (PSA) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in Complete Freund’s adjuvant. All the sera had high (.10,000) titers against the whole PAP or PSA proteins in the ELISA assay (data not shown). Our goal was to test whether it was possible to identify the proteins used for immunization by analyzing peptide profiles of serum antibody repertoires. The peptide profiles for the IgG antibodies from the four anti-PSA sera, four anti-PAP sera and t.R generating global profiles of serum antibody specificities [7]. The feasibility of using RPPDL and NGS to analyze antibody specificities of polyclonal sera was demonstrated recently by 10781694 profiling polyclonal sera derived from HIV infected individuals [8]. The authors demonstrated that a fraction of the most abundant peptides selected for binding to IgG antibodies of HIV positive sera could be aligned by a BLASTP analysis to the HIV protein thus indicating some HIV specificity. The drawback of using RPPDL for global profiling of serum antibody reactivity is the lack of information on the identities of the real antigens that are mimicked by the antibody-binding peptides. Identifying the targets of antibody immune response using peptide mimotopes is a difficult task, since most of epitopes recognized by antibodies are conformational and discontinuous and only a small fraction of antibodies are raised against linear or continuous epitopes. Furthermore, identifying even linear epitopesSerum Antibody Repertoire Profilingof unknown targets is also complicated since a BLAST search of protein databases retrieves hundreds of proteins that have a sequence match to a short peptide. In this work we demonstrate an algorithm, which we term in Silico Antigen Screen (SAS), for analyzing peptide profiles of serum antibody specificities generated by RPPDL panning and NGS. The algorithm can be used for identifying protein autoantigens if the unknown targets are recognized by antibodies directed against linear epitopes.Results Profiling the Immune Response in Mice Immunized With Human ProteinsPeptides selected for binding to serum antibodies in biopanning experiments can mimic linear (continuous) epitopes and conformational (discontinuous) epitopes of protein antigens. They also can mimic non-protein epitopes, such as the carbohydrate structures of glycoproteins or glycolipids, nucleic acids or other chemical structures. We hypothesized that the protein targets of humoral immune response can be identified using peptide profiles of serum antibody repertoires generated by NGS, and that peptides that mimic linear eptopes of proteins will be present among the profile-making peptides., Since for any short peptide the BLAST search of protein databases retrieves about a hundred of proteins that have matches to the peptide sequence, it is practically impossible to determine what kind of epitope the peptide was mimicking. However, the BLAST search for a large number of peptides can retrieve proteins that have multiple matches to different peptides. The probability for a protein to have multiple matches to different peptides due to a chance is proportional to the length of the protein. Therefore, the real protein targets of humoral immune response recognized by antibodies directed at the linear epitopes are likely to have the higher number of matches per protein length that the proteins that have matches to peptides due to a chance. To test this hypothesis, we used the sera of mice immunized with human proteins, prostate specific antigen (PSA) or prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in Complete Freund’s adjuvant. All the sera had high (.10,000) titers against the whole PAP or PSA proteins in the ELISA assay (data not shown). Our goal was to test whether it was possible to identify the proteins used for immunization by analyzing peptide profiles of serum antibody repertoires. The peptide profiles for the IgG antibodies from the four anti-PSA sera, four anti-PAP sera and t.

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