Th increased RV calcineurin expression and activity. Furthermore, expression of fetal

Th increased RV calcineurin expression and activity. Furthermore, expression of fetal

Th increased RV calcineurin expression and activity. Furthermore, expression of fetal genes and proteins associated with cardiac hypertrophy followed a typical profile associated with pressure overload with the exception of RV SerCa levels in secondary RVPO, which remained 94-09-7 unchanged despite a similar increased in RV pressure and Ea. This difference may reflect the acute versus chronic nature of the two RVPO models or may reflect a functional adaptation by the RV in response to chronic overload and calcium handling. TGFb1 is a ubiquitously expressed master switch that induces the fibrotic program in various cell types including cardiac fibroblasts and has been implicated in multiple fibroproliferative diseases including: glomerulosclerosis, ulcerative colitis, hepatic fibrosis, glaucoma, and scleroderma [33?7]. To date, preclinical studies have focused on inhibiting TGFb1 activity in left heart failure by disrupting ligand-receptor binding with modest reductions in cardiac fibrosis [19?1]. No studies have examined the role of TGFb1 signaling in RVPO. We now report that fibrosis is a central aspect of RV remodeling in response to primary or secondary RVPO and further show that TGFb1 signaling via canonical and non-canonical pathways is upregulated in the RV. There are several limitations to this study. First, since we used a retrograde approach to the LV and RV from the carotid artery and internal jugular vein, small changes in ventricular volumes may be due to aortic or tricuspid regurgitation. Second, simultaneous recordings of RV and LV loops were not currently feasible due to far-field and near-field interactions from the two 115103-85-0 site conductance catheters despite the use of dual frequency modes. This was resolved by acquiring RV and LV PV loops in rapid sequence during the same setting. Third, cardiac dimensions were not quantified in this study. Finally, future studies employing other time points of RVPO and murine models of primary pulmonary hypertension will be necessary to further define the course of RV remodeling in response to primary and secondary RVPO.A primary cause of death for individuals with acute or chronic pulmonary hypertension and left heart dysfunction is RV failure which is a directly related to abnormally high pulmonary pressures [1?]. At present, no specific therapies are designed to improve changes in RV structure or function in the setting of primary or secondary pulmonary hypertension. Further studies examining the distinct effects of primary and secondary RVPO on biventricular structure, function, and signaling via the calcineurin and TGFb1 pathways may identify novel targets of therapy for RV failure.Supporting InformationBiventricular remodeling after 7 days of secondary RVPO due to thoracic aortic constriction (TAC). A) Compared to sham controls, LV systolic pressure was increased (94+6 vs 132+18 mmHg, Sham vs TAC, p = 0.02) and RV systolic pressure unchanged (23+4 vs 26+3 mmHg, Sham vs TAC, p = NS) after 7 days of thoracic aortic constriction. B) Compared to sham controls, LV mass normalized to tibia length was increased (6+0.4 vs 7+0.1 mg/mm, Sham vs TAC, p = 0.03) and normalized RV mass 23977191 unchanged (1.5+0.2 vs 1.4+0.1 mg/mm, Sham vs TAC, p = NS) after 7 days of thoracic aortic constriction. C) Calcineurin mRNA expression was not significantly increased in the RV or LV after TAC. D) TGFb1 mRNA expression was increased in the LV (p = 0.03), not RV after TAC. (TIF)Figure S1 Table S1 Steady State Hemodynamics in a mo.Th increased RV calcineurin expression and activity. Furthermore, expression of fetal genes and proteins associated with cardiac hypertrophy followed a typical profile associated with pressure overload with the exception of RV SerCa levels in secondary RVPO, which remained unchanged despite a similar increased in RV pressure and Ea. This difference may reflect the acute versus chronic nature of the two RVPO models or may reflect a functional adaptation by the RV in response to chronic overload and calcium handling. TGFb1 is a ubiquitously expressed master switch that induces the fibrotic program in various cell types including cardiac fibroblasts and has been implicated in multiple fibroproliferative diseases including: glomerulosclerosis, ulcerative colitis, hepatic fibrosis, glaucoma, and scleroderma [33?7]. To date, preclinical studies have focused on inhibiting TGFb1 activity in left heart failure by disrupting ligand-receptor binding with modest reductions in cardiac fibrosis [19?1]. No studies have examined the role of TGFb1 signaling in RVPO. We now report that fibrosis is a central aspect of RV remodeling in response to primary or secondary RVPO and further show that TGFb1 signaling via canonical and non-canonical pathways is upregulated in the RV. There are several limitations to this study. First, since we used a retrograde approach to the LV and RV from the carotid artery and internal jugular vein, small changes in ventricular volumes may be due to aortic or tricuspid regurgitation. Second, simultaneous recordings of RV and LV loops were not currently feasible due to far-field and near-field interactions from the two conductance catheters despite the use of dual frequency modes. This was resolved by acquiring RV and LV PV loops in rapid sequence during the same setting. Third, cardiac dimensions were not quantified in this study. Finally, future studies employing other time points of RVPO and murine models of primary pulmonary hypertension will be necessary to further define the course of RV remodeling in response to primary and secondary RVPO.A primary cause of death for individuals with acute or chronic pulmonary hypertension and left heart dysfunction is RV failure which is a directly related to abnormally high pulmonary pressures [1?]. At present, no specific therapies are designed to improve changes in RV structure or function in the setting of primary or secondary pulmonary hypertension. Further studies examining the distinct effects of primary and secondary RVPO on biventricular structure, function, and signaling via the calcineurin and TGFb1 pathways may identify novel targets of therapy for RV failure.Supporting InformationBiventricular remodeling after 7 days of secondary RVPO due to thoracic aortic constriction (TAC). A) Compared to sham controls, LV systolic pressure was increased (94+6 vs 132+18 mmHg, Sham vs TAC, p = 0.02) and RV systolic pressure unchanged (23+4 vs 26+3 mmHg, Sham vs TAC, p = NS) after 7 days of thoracic aortic constriction. B) Compared to sham controls, LV mass normalized to tibia length was increased (6+0.4 vs 7+0.1 mg/mm, Sham vs TAC, p = 0.03) and normalized RV mass 23977191 unchanged (1.5+0.2 vs 1.4+0.1 mg/mm, Sham vs TAC, p = NS) after 7 days of thoracic aortic constriction. C) Calcineurin mRNA expression was not significantly increased in the RV or LV after TAC. D) TGFb1 mRNA expression was increased in the LV (p = 0.03), not RV after TAC. (TIF)Figure S1 Table S1 Steady State Hemodynamics in a mo.

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