N improvement [42]. There is evidence that an elevation of NR2B

N improvement [42]. There is evidence that an elevation of NR2B

N improvement [42]. There is evidence that an elevation of NR2B subunits results in enhanced LTP [39]. In the present study, we observed an elevated expression level of NR2B subunits in hippocampus homogenates without enhancement of LTP at the CA1 stratum radiatum synapse. One possible explanation might be that the observed upregulation of NR2B subunits occurs at synapses different from CA1 synapses (e.g. CA3, gyrus dentatus). Numerous reports show an improved cognitive performance and memory formation accompanied by an enhanced LTP in certain central nervous system regions (for review see e.g. [43]). However, this correlation must not necessarily be a general accepted principle (for reviews see e.g. [44,45]). The lack of an in vitro and in vivo correlation of memory related processes might be explained by a hippocampusspecific improvement of cognitive performance due to altered neuronal activity in all hippocampal regions and/or in connected brain areas, which is consequently not detectable with recordings from the CA1 region only. For sevoflurane, a memory enhancingFigure 3. Sevoflurane anesthesia induced buy Argipressin changes in the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in the hippocampus. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression levels of various receptor subunits in the hippocampi of anesthetized (sev) and non-anesthetized (sham) mice. Changes in expression levels in the sev group are expressed as relative values normalized to the grey values of the sham group. *P,0.05 reveals an upregulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor type 1 and 2B subunits (NR1 and NR2B) after sevoflurane anesthesia. No other receptor subunit was significantly altered. Example immunoblots are depicted in the insets. NR2A = NMDA receptor type 2A subunit; a2-GABAA = a2 subunit of c-aminobutyric acid type A receptor; GluR1, GluR2/3, GluR4 = a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunits 1, 2/3, 4; GluR6/7 = kainate receptor subunit 6/7, b2-nAch = b2 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.125-65-5 0064732.gSevoflurane Anesthesia and Learning and Memoryeffect in rats has been described, which is dependent on the basolateral amygdala [8]. Data on the impact of anesthesia on synaptic plasticity is largely limited to studies describing the effect of acute, in vitro application of anesthetics during induction of LTP. To our knowledge, our previous study [11] is the only one that investigated the impact of a preceding anesthesia on synaptic plasticity so far. In this study, we showed an enhanced hippocampal LTP 24 h after an isoflurane anesthesia in mice. In the present study, the potentiation of synaptic responses in CA1 neurons was not altered in mice which underwent a sevoflurane anesthesia, which contrasts our recently published data with isoflurane. Although sevoflurane and isoflurane show a similar profile in view of their effects on voltage- and ligandgated ion channels [13,14,46?8], differences in e.g. the influence on the presynaptic glutamate release/reuptake [49] or on protein kinase C activity [50] have been reported. As protein kinase C activation is crucially involved in synaptic plasticity (for review see e.g. [51]), these differences might explain the discrepancy between isoflurane- and sevoflurane-induced medium-term effects on LTP.In summary, in the present study, we show that sevoflurane anesthesia does not impair cognitive performance and CA1 hippocampal LTP formati.N improvement [42]. There is evidence that an elevation of NR2B subunits results in enhanced LTP [39]. In the present study, we observed an elevated expression level of NR2B subunits in hippocampus homogenates without enhancement of LTP at the CA1 stratum radiatum synapse. One possible explanation might be that the observed upregulation of NR2B subunits occurs at synapses different from CA1 synapses (e.g. CA3, gyrus dentatus). Numerous reports show an improved cognitive performance and memory formation accompanied by an enhanced LTP in certain central nervous system regions (for review see e.g. [43]). However, this correlation must not necessarily be a general accepted principle (for reviews see e.g. [44,45]). The lack of an in vitro and in vivo correlation of memory related processes might be explained by a hippocampusspecific improvement of cognitive performance due to altered neuronal activity in all hippocampal regions and/or in connected brain areas, which is consequently not detectable with recordings from the CA1 region only. For sevoflurane, a memory enhancingFigure 3. Sevoflurane anesthesia induced changes in the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in the hippocampus. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression levels of various receptor subunits in the hippocampi of anesthetized (sev) and non-anesthetized (sham) mice. Changes in expression levels in the sev group are expressed as relative values normalized to the grey values of the sham group. *P,0.05 reveals an upregulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor type 1 and 2B subunits (NR1 and NR2B) after sevoflurane anesthesia. No other receptor subunit was significantly altered. Example immunoblots are depicted in the insets. NR2A = NMDA receptor type 2A subunit; a2-GABAA = a2 subunit of c-aminobutyric acid type A receptor; GluR1, GluR2/3, GluR4 = a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunits 1, 2/3, 4; GluR6/7 = kainate receptor subunit 6/7, b2-nAch = b2 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064732.gSevoflurane Anesthesia and Learning and Memoryeffect in rats has been described, which is dependent on the basolateral amygdala [8]. Data on the impact of anesthesia on synaptic plasticity is largely limited to studies describing the effect of acute, in vitro application of anesthetics during induction of LTP. To our knowledge, our previous study [11] is the only one that investigated the impact of a preceding anesthesia on synaptic plasticity so far. In this study, we showed an enhanced hippocampal LTP 24 h after an isoflurane anesthesia in mice. In the present study, the potentiation of synaptic responses in CA1 neurons was not altered in mice which underwent a sevoflurane anesthesia, which contrasts our recently published data with isoflurane. Although sevoflurane and isoflurane show a similar profile in view of their effects on voltage- and ligandgated ion channels [13,14,46?8], differences in e.g. the influence on the presynaptic glutamate release/reuptake [49] or on protein kinase C activity [50] have been reported. As protein kinase C activation is crucially involved in synaptic plasticity (for review see e.g. [51]), these differences might explain the discrepancy between isoflurane- and sevoflurane-induced medium-term effects on LTP.In summary, in the present study, we show that sevoflurane anesthesia does not impair cognitive performance and CA1 hippocampal LTP formati.

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