Over time by native and glycated lipid-free apoA-I. ApoA-I was pretreated

Over time by native and glycated lipid-free apoA-I. ApoA-I was pretreated

Over time by native and MedChemExpress Mirin glycated lipid-free apoA-I. ApoA-I was pretreated with 0?0 mM glucose (A), 0? mM methylglyoxal (B) or 0? mM glycolaldehyde (C) for 24 h at 37uC, before mixing with DMPC MLV and monitored at 325 nm. Solid line, control apoA-I (0 mM glucose/ methylglyoxal/glycolaldehyde); squares, 5.5 mM glucose or 0.03 mM aldehyde; triangles, 10 mM glucose or 0.03 mM aldehyde; diamonds, 20 mM glucose or 3 mM aldehyde; circles 30 mM glucose. Lines are plotted from the mean absorbance values obtained from triplicate samples in a representative experiment. Error bars are omitted for clarity. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065430.gMacrophage cholesterol efflux to drHDL containing glycated or unmodified apoA-ICholesterol efflux to native drHDL was unaffected by cAMP treatment (not shown), but was increased by 9-cis-retinoic acid, either alone or with BTZ-043 cost TO-901317 (Fig. 5A). Glycation of apoA-I in drHDL with 30 mM glucose, 3 mM methylglyoxal or 3 mMGlycation Alters Apolipoprotein A-I Lipid AffinityFigure 3. Kinetic parameters of DMPC multilamellar vesicle clearance by glycated lipid-free apoA-I. Two-phase exponential decay equations were fitted to glucose (A, B), methylglyoxal (C, E) and glycolaldehyde-modified apoA-I (D, F) time course clearances of DMPC MLV to determine fast (A, C, E) and slow rate constants (B, D, F) * Significantly different by repeated measures one-way ANOVA to the complete system without apoA-I pretreatment with glucose/methylglyoxal/glycolaldehyde. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065430.gglycolaldehyde (Fig. 5B) did not affect efflux, irrespective of pretreatment with cAMP (data not shown) or LXR-RXR agonists (Fig. 5A). Efflux to drHDL significantly increased between 4 and 8 h (Fig. 4B) irrespective of protein glycation or not.laden macrophages to lipid-free apoA-I from people with diabetes, or controls, was not significantly different (Fig. 7C).DiscussionCholesterol efflux from lipid-laden macrophages to lipid-free apoA-I or HDL is part of the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway [12]. Hyperglycaemia-induced changes to these lipoproteins may enhance atherosclerosis [31]. Previous studies on the effects of glycation on cholesterol efflux have yielded mixed data [21?3,30,32] with this potentially reflecting the poorlycharacterised nature/extent of particle modification, heterogeneous HDL populations, different cell types and whether the cells examined were lipid-loaded or not. We have attempted to elucidate the factors that modulate phospholipid association with apoA-I, and cholesterol efflux by employing well-characterised lipid-free apoA-I, and drHDL particles containing apoA-I as the sole protein. These materials were produced with controlled and defined levels of glycation, and insignificant levels of oxidation, factors that have not been addressed in detail in previous studies. As the glycation protocol employed does not result in significant protein or lipid oxidation a role for oxidation in the observed changes can be discounted [15]. Glucose did not modify lipid-free apoA-I or drHDL significantly, whereas methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde induced rapid modification, consistent with previous studies [14,15]. GreaterInhibition of in vitro apoA-I glycation and restoration of effluxAminoguanidine (15 mM) present during the in vitro glycation of lipid-free apoA-I with glycolaldehyde (15 mM) decreased the extent of loss of Lys and Trp residues, but did not affect the loss of Arg residues (Fig. 6A). Equimolar.Over time by native and glycated lipid-free apoA-I. ApoA-I was pretreated with 0?0 mM glucose (A), 0? mM methylglyoxal (B) or 0? mM glycolaldehyde (C) for 24 h at 37uC, before mixing with DMPC MLV and monitored at 325 nm. Solid line, control apoA-I (0 mM glucose/ methylglyoxal/glycolaldehyde); squares, 5.5 mM glucose or 0.03 mM aldehyde; triangles, 10 mM glucose or 0.03 mM aldehyde; diamonds, 20 mM glucose or 3 mM aldehyde; circles 30 mM glucose. Lines are plotted from the mean absorbance values obtained from triplicate samples in a representative experiment. Error bars are omitted for clarity. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065430.gMacrophage cholesterol efflux to drHDL containing glycated or unmodified apoA-ICholesterol efflux to native drHDL was unaffected by cAMP treatment (not shown), but was increased by 9-cis-retinoic acid, either alone or with TO-901317 (Fig. 5A). Glycation of apoA-I in drHDL with 30 mM glucose, 3 mM methylglyoxal or 3 mMGlycation Alters Apolipoprotein A-I Lipid AffinityFigure 3. Kinetic parameters of DMPC multilamellar vesicle clearance by glycated lipid-free apoA-I. Two-phase exponential decay equations were fitted to glucose (A, B), methylglyoxal (C, E) and glycolaldehyde-modified apoA-I (D, F) time course clearances of DMPC MLV to determine fast (A, C, E) and slow rate constants (B, D, F) * Significantly different by repeated measures one-way ANOVA to the complete system without apoA-I pretreatment with glucose/methylglyoxal/glycolaldehyde. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065430.gglycolaldehyde (Fig. 5B) did not affect efflux, irrespective of pretreatment with cAMP (data not shown) or LXR-RXR agonists (Fig. 5A). Efflux to drHDL significantly increased between 4 and 8 h (Fig. 4B) irrespective of protein glycation or not.laden macrophages to lipid-free apoA-I from people with diabetes, or controls, was not significantly different (Fig. 7C).DiscussionCholesterol efflux from lipid-laden macrophages to lipid-free apoA-I or HDL is part of the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway [12]. Hyperglycaemia-induced changes to these lipoproteins may enhance atherosclerosis [31]. Previous studies on the effects of glycation on cholesterol efflux have yielded mixed data [21?3,30,32] with this potentially reflecting the poorlycharacterised nature/extent of particle modification, heterogeneous HDL populations, different cell types and whether the cells examined were lipid-loaded or not. We have attempted to elucidate the factors that modulate phospholipid association with apoA-I, and cholesterol efflux by employing well-characterised lipid-free apoA-I, and drHDL particles containing apoA-I as the sole protein. These materials were produced with controlled and defined levels of glycation, and insignificant levels of oxidation, factors that have not been addressed in detail in previous studies. As the glycation protocol employed does not result in significant protein or lipid oxidation a role for oxidation in the observed changes can be discounted [15]. Glucose did not modify lipid-free apoA-I or drHDL significantly, whereas methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde induced rapid modification, consistent with previous studies [14,15]. GreaterInhibition of in vitro apoA-I glycation and restoration of effluxAminoguanidine (15 mM) present during the in vitro glycation of lipid-free apoA-I with glycolaldehyde (15 mM) decreased the extent of loss of Lys and Trp residues, but did not affect the loss of Arg residues (Fig. 6A). Equimolar.

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