Received injection of PfSPZ Challenge as scheduled with the exception of

Received injection of PfSPZ Challenge as scheduled with the exception of

Received injection of PfSPZ Challenge as scheduled with the exception of one volunteer in Group 1 who received approximately 10 less than the scheduled dose due to some of the inoculum leaking from the administration site post injection. All participants completed the study as scheduled. The mean time between thawing of PfSPZ Challenge and administration was 15.9 minutes (range 12?2) (Table S5).Infectivity of PfSPZ ChallengeFive out of six participants receiving 2,500 sporozoites ID in Group 1, 3/6 participants receiving 2,500 sporozoites IM in Group 2 and 6/6 participants receiving 25,000 sporozoites IM in Group 3 were successfully infected with malaria (Figure 2 and Table S6). Of note, the participant in Group 1 who received a lower dose of PfSPZ Challenge than planned was not infected with malaria. The median time to diagnosis was 13.2, 17.8 and 12.7 days for 2,500 sporozoites ID, 2,500 sporozoites IM and 25,000 sporozoites IM respectively (Kaplan Meier analysis; p = 0.024 log rank test).Ex-vivo Interferon-c (IFN-c) ELIspotBlood peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) ELISpot assays were performed as previously described. [31] Briefly PBMCs were isolated after centrifugation over Lymphoprep gradients followed by culturing 250,000 PBMCs per well with the relevant peptide at a final concentration of 1 mg/mL (Neo Group Inc., USA, Mimotopes, Australia and Thermo Fischer Scientific, USA) on anti-IFN-c coated plates. After 18?0 hours, plates were get Madecassoside developed as previously described. [31] IFN-c spot forming units (SFU) were enumerated using an ELISpot counter (Autoimmun Diagnostika, Germany) with the results presented as SFU per million PBMCs after the background (response to media only) and responses at day before CHMI (C-1) were subtracted. Antigens to assess IFN-c production were chosen based on reported findings in the literature; they were either a) preerythrocytic liver and blood stage antigens previously assessed for vaccine induced T cell immunogenicity (MSP, [31,32] AMA, [32,33] TRAP, [34] Pfs16, STRAP, EXP1, LSA1 [35]), b) targets of immune responses in naturally exposed individuals or volunteers vaccinated with irradiated sporozoites (CelTOS, [26] Exp1, [36,37], LSA1 [24,38] and LSA3 [39], STARP [40], Pfs16 [41]), c) proteins known to have protective homologs based 23148522 on murine or non-human primate sub-unit vaccination studies (CelTOS, [42] Exp1, [43] LSA3, [36,44] PfUIS3, [45] Oltipraz site PFI0580c [45]), or d) proteins recently identified as highly up-regulated during the liverstage (LSAP1, [46] LSAP2 [46] and PFE1590w). [47].Modelling of Parasitemia Measured by qPCRFigure 3 plots the qPCR results for each individual in the trial. No positive results were obtained from any of the 82 blood samples (246 individual replicate qPCR reactions; Table S7) from the four individuals who were not diagnosed with malaria. All participants were qPCR-negative at samples taken 6.5 days post infection (dC+6.5) and so modelling commenced at dC+7. LBI calculated using a number of methods (Figure 4) [48,49] were comparable between 2,500 sporozoites ID and 25,000 sporozoites IM. In agreement with pre-patent periods LBI results differed significantly across groups with 25,000 sporozoites IM having the highest LBI, followed by 2,500 sporozoites ID and 2,500 sporozoites IM (P = 0.03 by Kruskal Wallis test). Of note, the PfSPZ dosing regimens led to lower LBI compared to mosquito bite CHMI trials at our centre (P = 0.0001 Wilcoxon Rank Sum test for n = 18 historical.Received injection of PfSPZ Challenge as scheduled with the exception of one volunteer in Group 1 who received approximately 10 less than the scheduled dose due to some of the inoculum leaking from the administration site post injection. All participants completed the study as scheduled. The mean time between thawing of PfSPZ Challenge and administration was 15.9 minutes (range 12?2) (Table S5).Infectivity of PfSPZ ChallengeFive out of six participants receiving 2,500 sporozoites ID in Group 1, 3/6 participants receiving 2,500 sporozoites IM in Group 2 and 6/6 participants receiving 25,000 sporozoites IM in Group 3 were successfully infected with malaria (Figure 2 and Table S6). Of note, the participant in Group 1 who received a lower dose of PfSPZ Challenge than planned was not infected with malaria. The median time to diagnosis was 13.2, 17.8 and 12.7 days for 2,500 sporozoites ID, 2,500 sporozoites IM and 25,000 sporozoites IM respectively (Kaplan Meier analysis; p = 0.024 log rank test).Ex-vivo Interferon-c (IFN-c) ELIspotBlood peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) ELISpot assays were performed as previously described. [31] Briefly PBMCs were isolated after centrifugation over Lymphoprep gradients followed by culturing 250,000 PBMCs per well with the relevant peptide at a final concentration of 1 mg/mL (Neo Group Inc., USA, Mimotopes, Australia and Thermo Fischer Scientific, USA) on anti-IFN-c coated plates. After 18?0 hours, plates were developed as previously described. [31] IFN-c spot forming units (SFU) were enumerated using an ELISpot counter (Autoimmun Diagnostika, Germany) with the results presented as SFU per million PBMCs after the background (response to media only) and responses at day before CHMI (C-1) were subtracted. Antigens to assess IFN-c production were chosen based on reported findings in the literature; they were either a) preerythrocytic liver and blood stage antigens previously assessed for vaccine induced T cell immunogenicity (MSP, [31,32] AMA, [32,33] TRAP, [34] Pfs16, STRAP, EXP1, LSA1 [35]), b) targets of immune responses in naturally exposed individuals or volunteers vaccinated with irradiated sporozoites (CelTOS, [26] Exp1, [36,37], LSA1 [24,38] and LSA3 [39], STARP [40], Pfs16 [41]), c) proteins known to have protective homologs based 23148522 on murine or non-human primate sub-unit vaccination studies (CelTOS, [42] Exp1, [43] LSA3, [36,44] PfUIS3, [45] PFI0580c [45]), or d) proteins recently identified as highly up-regulated during the liverstage (LSAP1, [46] LSAP2 [46] and PFE1590w). [47].Modelling of Parasitemia Measured by qPCRFigure 3 plots the qPCR results for each individual in the trial. No positive results were obtained from any of the 82 blood samples (246 individual replicate qPCR reactions; Table S7) from the four individuals who were not diagnosed with malaria. All participants were qPCR-negative at samples taken 6.5 days post infection (dC+6.5) and so modelling commenced at dC+7. LBI calculated using a number of methods (Figure 4) [48,49] were comparable between 2,500 sporozoites ID and 25,000 sporozoites IM. In agreement with pre-patent periods LBI results differed significantly across groups with 25,000 sporozoites IM having the highest LBI, followed by 2,500 sporozoites ID and 2,500 sporozoites IM (P = 0.03 by Kruskal Wallis test). Of note, the PfSPZ dosing regimens led to lower LBI compared to mosquito bite CHMI trials at our centre (P = 0.0001 Wilcoxon Rank Sum test for n = 18 historical.

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