Ronics, Goleta, CA) stereomicroscope system (Stemi 2000-C; Carl Zeiss, Thornwood, NY

Ronics, Goleta, CA) stereomicroscope system (Stemi 2000-C; Carl Zeiss, Thornwood, NY

Ronics, Goleta, CA) stereomicroscope system (Stemi 2000-C; Carl Zeiss, Thornwood, NY). Pathology was scored on 5-point grading system (0?) based on the amount of surface area involved, 10781694 the density of an opacity, and the overall surface regularity similar to that previously described [38]. Scores ranged from 0 (no infection) to a maximum of 12 (severe infection).Materials and Methods Ethics StatementAll procedures involving animals were carried out in accordance with standards established by the Association for the Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, and under a protocol approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee, University of California, Berkeley, an AAALAC accredited institution.Experimentally-Induced Dry Eye (EDE) Murine ModelEDE was induced in female, 6? weeks old C57BL/6 mice (Charles River Laboratories, Boston, MA), or in female or male 6?8 weeks old SP-D gene knockout (sp-d 2/2) Black Swiss mice (a generous gift of Dr. Samuel Hawgood, University of California, San MedChemExpress Hypericin Francisco) along with strain/age/sex-matched controls (Taconic Farms, Cambridge City, IN). Mice were given subcutaneous injections of scopolamine hydrobromide (0.2 mL of 2.5 mg/mL per 20 g body weight; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) 3 times daily, alternating between right and left flanks, as previously described [37]. Animals were housed in mesh-sided 16985061 cages, exposed to continuous fan-generated air drafts of low humidity (35?0 ) for a period of 5 or 10 days. Control mice received vehicle only (PBS) injections and were housed under standard vivarium conditions without air drafts and normal humidity (40?0 ). Aqueous tear production was assessed by placing a cotton thread (Zone Quick; FCI Ophthalmics, Marshfield, MA) in the lateral canthus for 30 s as previously described [26], and was reported as millimeters of wetted thread. When appropriate animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal injections of 1.5 mg ketamine, 0.17 mg xylazine, 21 mg acepromazine per 20 g body weight. All mice (C57BL/6 or Black Swiss) developed similar levels of EDE. At the conclusion of eachSP-D DetectionSP-D in murine tear fluids was detected by Western Immunoblot as described previously [35]. Tear fluids were collected by MedChemExpress SPDB washing the ocular surface with PBS as described above and pooling samples from 10 mice per group. Total protein concentration of pooled ocular surface washes was determined with a BCA assay (Pierce, Rockford, IL), and equivalent amounts of protein resolved by SDS-PAGE (Tris-HCl Ready Gel 10 , BioRad, Hercules, CA) under denaturing conditions. Proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose by electroblotting (180 mAmps for 2 h) in transfer buffer (25 mM Tris, 190 mM glycine, and 10 (v/v) methanol). Membranes were blocked with a solution of 10Dry Eye Disease and Defense against P. aeruginosadry-skim milk suspended in PBS containing 0.1 Tween-20 (PBST) for 3 h at room temperature. Primary antibody solution contained rabbit anti-SP-D IgG (generous gift of Dr. Samuel Hawgood, University of California, San Francisco) diluted 1:750 in PBS-T (4uC for 10 h). After washing thoroughly with PBS-T, a secondary antibody solution was used consisting of anti-rabbit IgG-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (BioRad) diluted 1:3,000 in PBS-T (room temperature for 1 h). After PBS-T washing, membranes were visualized with a chemiluminescence substrate (Western Lighting ECL, Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA) and imaging system (FluorChem, Alpha Innotech, Santa Clara, CA).Statistical AnalysisTear volume a.Ronics, Goleta, CA) stereomicroscope system (Stemi 2000-C; Carl Zeiss, Thornwood, NY). Pathology was scored on 5-point grading system (0?) based on the amount of surface area involved, 10781694 the density of an opacity, and the overall surface regularity similar to that previously described [38]. Scores ranged from 0 (no infection) to a maximum of 12 (severe infection).Materials and Methods Ethics StatementAll procedures involving animals were carried out in accordance with standards established by the Association for the Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, and under a protocol approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee, University of California, Berkeley, an AAALAC accredited institution.Experimentally-Induced Dry Eye (EDE) Murine ModelEDE was induced in female, 6? weeks old C57BL/6 mice (Charles River Laboratories, Boston, MA), or in female or male 6?8 weeks old SP-D gene knockout (sp-d 2/2) Black Swiss mice (a generous gift of Dr. Samuel Hawgood, University of California, San Francisco) along with strain/age/sex-matched controls (Taconic Farms, Cambridge City, IN). Mice were given subcutaneous injections of scopolamine hydrobromide (0.2 mL of 2.5 mg/mL per 20 g body weight; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) 3 times daily, alternating between right and left flanks, as previously described [37]. Animals were housed in mesh-sided 16985061 cages, exposed to continuous fan-generated air drafts of low humidity (35?0 ) for a period of 5 or 10 days. Control mice received vehicle only (PBS) injections and were housed under standard vivarium conditions without air drafts and normal humidity (40?0 ). Aqueous tear production was assessed by placing a cotton thread (Zone Quick; FCI Ophthalmics, Marshfield, MA) in the lateral canthus for 30 s as previously described [26], and was reported as millimeters of wetted thread. When appropriate animals were anesthetized with intraperitoneal injections of 1.5 mg ketamine, 0.17 mg xylazine, 21 mg acepromazine per 20 g body weight. All mice (C57BL/6 or Black Swiss) developed similar levels of EDE. At the conclusion of eachSP-D DetectionSP-D in murine tear fluids was detected by Western Immunoblot as described previously [35]. Tear fluids were collected by washing the ocular surface with PBS as described above and pooling samples from 10 mice per group. Total protein concentration of pooled ocular surface washes was determined with a BCA assay (Pierce, Rockford, IL), and equivalent amounts of protein resolved by SDS-PAGE (Tris-HCl Ready Gel 10 , BioRad, Hercules, CA) under denaturing conditions. Proteins were transferred to nitrocellulose by electroblotting (180 mAmps for 2 h) in transfer buffer (25 mM Tris, 190 mM glycine, and 10 (v/v) methanol). Membranes were blocked with a solution of 10Dry Eye Disease and Defense against P. aeruginosadry-skim milk suspended in PBS containing 0.1 Tween-20 (PBST) for 3 h at room temperature. Primary antibody solution contained rabbit anti-SP-D IgG (generous gift of Dr. Samuel Hawgood, University of California, San Francisco) diluted 1:750 in PBS-T (4uC for 10 h). After washing thoroughly with PBS-T, a secondary antibody solution was used consisting of anti-rabbit IgG-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (BioRad) diluted 1:3,000 in PBS-T (room temperature for 1 h). After PBS-T washing, membranes were visualized with a chemiluminescence substrate (Western Lighting ECL, Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA) and imaging system (FluorChem, Alpha Innotech, Santa Clara, CA).Statistical AnalysisTear volume a.

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