Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066315.tprofiling studies will be continued to help optimize

Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066315.tprofiling studies will be continued to help optimize

Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066315.tprofiling studies will be continued to help optimize miRNA functional studies in patients with malignant and benign pancreatic diseases, which are much different from in vitro studies.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: JZ. Performed the experiments: JC XC ZG. Analyzed the data: XL. Contributed reagents/materials/ analysis tools: JL JH. Wrote the paper: JC.
purchase ML-281 nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver injury in many countries [1,2]. A recent study showed that the risk of developing NAFLD is 4?1 times higher in patients with metabolic syndrome, compared with healthy individuals [3]. NAFLD ranges from benign simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), while NASH often progresses to severe fibrosis [4,5] and hepatocellular carcinoma [6?8]. In addition, the mechanisms involved in the development of NASH are not fully understood and the therapeutic options limited. Therefore, predicting the progression of simple steatosis to NASH and developing methods to facilitate the precise diagnosis of NASH are important targets for clinical research.Inflammation is a central process in the pathogenesis of NASH. Previous reports have shown that chronic liver inflammation is an important contributing factor to the pathogenesis of NASH and the key predictor of histological progression [9?1]. Therefore, precise detection and evaluation of liver inflammation are important to help predict the progression of NASH. In fact, several clinical biomarkers associated with systemic inflammation, including serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) [12] and cytokines [13], have been proposed as potential markers of liver inflammation to aid NASH diagnosis. However, no clinical studies have confirmed the usefulness of these markers to date. Therefore, invasive liver biopsy is still the only method to reliably detect liver inflammation and reach a definite diagnosis of NASH. However, this procedure is invasive and is associated with a relatively high risk of complications [14], emphasizing the clinical importance ofsCD14 and Liver Inflammation in NASHidentifying biomarkers for liver inflammation in patients with NAFLD. We recently discovered that leptin-induced overexpression of CD14 in the liver is an 23148522 important component of the pathogenesis of NASH [15]. We found that CD14 overexpression resulted in a hyper-responsiveness to low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an important step in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, and was associated with liver inflammation and fibrosis [15]. These results suggest that measuring Met-Enkephalin chemical information hepatic CD14 expression, which reflects its expression in Kupffer cells, may be useful to predict liver inflammation in NASH. However, invasive biopsies are still required to collect the tissue samples used to measure liver CD14 expression. CD14 is a co-receptor that is detected in two forms: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein (mCD14) and a soluble serum protein (sCD14) lacking the anchor protein [16]. Additionally, several reports have shown that sCD14 is shed from the surface of mCD14-expressing cells [16?8], although the exact roles of sCD14 are still unknown. Therefore, we hypothesized that serum sCD14 levels, shed from mCD14, might be highly correlated with hepatic CD14 expression levels in NASH patients, and could predict the severity of NASH, particularly liver inflammation. If this hypothesis is correct, m.Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066315.tprofiling studies will be continued to help optimize miRNA functional studies in patients with malignant and benign pancreatic diseases, which are much different from in vitro studies.Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: JZ. Performed the experiments: JC XC ZG. Analyzed the data: XL. Contributed reagents/materials/ analysis tools: JL JH. Wrote the paper: JC.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of chronic liver injury in many countries [1,2]. A recent study showed that the risk of developing NAFLD is 4?1 times higher in patients with metabolic syndrome, compared with healthy individuals [3]. NAFLD ranges from benign simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), while NASH often progresses to severe fibrosis [4,5] and hepatocellular carcinoma [6?8]. In addition, the mechanisms involved in the development of NASH are not fully understood and the therapeutic options limited. Therefore, predicting the progression of simple steatosis to NASH and developing methods to facilitate the precise diagnosis of NASH are important targets for clinical research.Inflammation is a central process in the pathogenesis of NASH. Previous reports have shown that chronic liver inflammation is an important contributing factor to the pathogenesis of NASH and the key predictor of histological progression [9?1]. Therefore, precise detection and evaluation of liver inflammation are important to help predict the progression of NASH. In fact, several clinical biomarkers associated with systemic inflammation, including serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) [12] and cytokines [13], have been proposed as potential markers of liver inflammation to aid NASH diagnosis. However, no clinical studies have confirmed the usefulness of these markers to date. Therefore, invasive liver biopsy is still the only method to reliably detect liver inflammation and reach a definite diagnosis of NASH. However, this procedure is invasive and is associated with a relatively high risk of complications [14], emphasizing the clinical importance ofsCD14 and Liver Inflammation in NASHidentifying biomarkers for liver inflammation in patients with NAFLD. We recently discovered that leptin-induced overexpression of CD14 in the liver is an 23148522 important component of the pathogenesis of NASH [15]. We found that CD14 overexpression resulted in a hyper-responsiveness to low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an important step in the progression from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, and was associated with liver inflammation and fibrosis [15]. These results suggest that measuring hepatic CD14 expression, which reflects its expression in Kupffer cells, may be useful to predict liver inflammation in NASH. However, invasive biopsies are still required to collect the tissue samples used to measure liver CD14 expression. CD14 is a co-receptor that is detected in two forms: a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein (mCD14) and a soluble serum protein (sCD14) lacking the anchor protein [16]. Additionally, several reports have shown that sCD14 is shed from the surface of mCD14-expressing cells [16?8], although the exact roles of sCD14 are still unknown. Therefore, we hypothesized that serum sCD14 levels, shed from mCD14, might be highly correlated with hepatic CD14 expression levels in NASH patients, and could predict the severity of NASH, particularly liver inflammation. If this hypothesis is correct, m.

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