E obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The Lewis lung

E obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The Lewis lung

E obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell line was obtained from L. Wu (University of California, Los Angeles). Mouse endothelial cell lines derived from prostate were kindly provided by S. Huang and I. Fidler (M.D. Anderson Cancer GNF-7 web Center, Houston, Texas)[31?3]. The C4 mouse melanoma cell line was kindly provided by I. Fidler (University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center). Tumor conditioned medium (TCM) was prepared from C4 cells as described [34]. All cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 or DMEM medium supplemented with 5 ?0 FBS.Immunofluorescence and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) StainingFor immunofluorescent staining, the flash-frozen tumor specimens or frozen Matrigel plugs were fixed in formaldehyde and permeabilized with methanol before antibody staining. After blocking, sections were stained with primary antibody overnight followed by incubation with a secondary antibody, mounted in Vectashield mounting medium containing 4969-diamidino-2phenylindole (DAPI) (Vector C.I. 19140 site Laboratories). In some cases, sections were stained with Hoechst 33342 (1:200) to visualize nuclei then mounted in Mowiol coverslip mounting solution. Images were taken by confocal microscopy using CLSM510Meta confocal microscope (Zeiss). Cells expressing either CD19 B cell markers or p-STAT3 were enumerated from ten microscopic fields with at least 1,000 cells by Image Pro 6.3 software. For IHC, paraffin tissue slides were deparaffinized, rehydrated through an alcohol series and autoclaved in Antigen Unmasking Solution (Vector Laboratories). After wash, tissue sections were treated with 1 H2O2 in methanol for 10 min at room temperature, then incubated with the primary antibody for overnight at 4uC and subjected to ABC/DAB detection method (Vector Laboratories). The expression level of primary antibody in tumor tissues was visualized by a Nikon ECLIPSE TE2000-U microscope and imaged using SPOT software. The primary antibodies used are anti-pY705-STAT3 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc. or Cell Signaling), anti-CD19, a marker for human B cells (AbD Serotec), anti-B220, mouse B cell marker (eBioscience), anti-MMP9 (Cell Signaling) and anti-CD31 for human and mouse blood vessels (Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc. and BD Pharmingen, respectively).AnimalsStat3flox mice 23148522 were provided by S. Akira (Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan) and K. Takeda (Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan). Rag12/2(ko)Momj/B6.129S7 mice were purchased from the Jackson Laboratory. Stat3flox and Mx1-Cre or CD19-Cre mice were crossed and treated with polyinosiniccytidylic acid to obtain Stat3 conditional knockouts in the hematopoietic system or in B cells. C57BL/6 mice were purchased from the National Cancer Institute (Frederick, MD).In vivo Tumor ExperimentsTo obtain tumor-primed B cells, B16, MB49 or LLC tumor cells (1 to 26105) were first implanted subcutaneously into the flank of C57BL/6 mice with Stat3+/+ and Stat32/2 hematopoietic cells, which is generated by crossing Stat3flox and Mx1-Cre mice. Spleen, tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN) as well as tumor specimens were harvested after 14 days and processed further toSTAT3-High B Cells Crucial for Tumor AngiogenesisTube Formation AssayEndothelial cells (ECs) and mouse B cells with or without Stat3 were co-cultured on neutralized collagen at 1:1 ratio in 1 FBSRPMI 1640 medium (1.2 mg/ml; BD Biosciences) for 16 h. The cells were fixed in 4 paraformaldehyde for 10 min, washed, and analyzed under an inverte.E obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell line was obtained from L. Wu (University of California, Los Angeles). Mouse endothelial cell lines derived from prostate were kindly provided by S. Huang and I. Fidler (M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas)[31?3]. The C4 mouse melanoma cell line was kindly provided by I. Fidler (University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center). Tumor conditioned medium (TCM) was prepared from C4 cells as described [34]. All cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 or DMEM medium supplemented with 5 ?0 FBS.Immunofluorescence and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) StainingFor immunofluorescent staining, the flash-frozen tumor specimens or frozen Matrigel plugs were fixed in formaldehyde and permeabilized with methanol before antibody staining. After blocking, sections were stained with primary antibody overnight followed by incubation with a secondary antibody, mounted in Vectashield mounting medium containing 4969-diamidino-2phenylindole (DAPI) (Vector Laboratories). In some cases, sections were stained with Hoechst 33342 (1:200) to visualize nuclei then mounted in Mowiol coverslip mounting solution. Images were taken by confocal microscopy using CLSM510Meta confocal microscope (Zeiss). Cells expressing either CD19 B cell markers or p-STAT3 were enumerated from ten microscopic fields with at least 1,000 cells by Image Pro 6.3 software. For IHC, paraffin tissue slides were deparaffinized, rehydrated through an alcohol series and autoclaved in Antigen Unmasking Solution (Vector Laboratories). After wash, tissue sections were treated with 1 H2O2 in methanol for 10 min at room temperature, then incubated with the primary antibody for overnight at 4uC and subjected to ABC/DAB detection method (Vector Laboratories). The expression level of primary antibody in tumor tissues was visualized by a Nikon ECLIPSE TE2000-U microscope and imaged using SPOT software. The primary antibodies used are anti-pY705-STAT3 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc. or Cell Signaling), anti-CD19, a marker for human B cells (AbD Serotec), anti-B220, mouse B cell marker (eBioscience), anti-MMP9 (Cell Signaling) and anti-CD31 for human and mouse blood vessels (Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc. and BD Pharmingen, respectively).AnimalsStat3flox mice 23148522 were provided by S. Akira (Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan) and K. Takeda (Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan). Rag12/2(ko)Momj/B6.129S7 mice were purchased from the Jackson Laboratory. Stat3flox and Mx1-Cre or CD19-Cre mice were crossed and treated with polyinosiniccytidylic acid to obtain Stat3 conditional knockouts in the hematopoietic system or in B cells. C57BL/6 mice were purchased from the National Cancer Institute (Frederick, MD).In vivo Tumor ExperimentsTo obtain tumor-primed B cells, B16, MB49 or LLC tumor cells (1 to 26105) were first implanted subcutaneously into the flank of C57BL/6 mice with Stat3+/+ and Stat32/2 hematopoietic cells, which is generated by crossing Stat3flox and Mx1-Cre mice. Spleen, tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLN) as well as tumor specimens were harvested after 14 days and processed further toSTAT3-High B Cells Crucial for Tumor AngiogenesisTube Formation AssayEndothelial cells (ECs) and mouse B cells with or without Stat3 were co-cultured on neutralized collagen at 1:1 ratio in 1 FBSRPMI 1640 medium (1.2 mg/ml; BD Biosciences) for 16 h. The cells were fixed in 4 paraformaldehyde for 10 min, washed, and analyzed under an inverte.

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