E than the open state [15]. This appears to disagree with most

E than the open state [15]. This appears to disagree with most

E than the open state [15]. This appears to disagree with most simulations (including our results here) and knowledge inferred from some other experiments. We note that a single distance may bear a high degeneracy of the conformational states, given the large conformational fluctuations observed in the simulations. Possible multiple 301-00-8 site conformations of AdK, as discussed below, might contribute to the distribution of the measured distance. In light of this, simulations that more closely mimic the particular experiment, such as ones with the attached dyes explicitly incorporated, would help to gain more insight into this discrepancy. Indeed, our unrestrained simulations revealed a substantial degree of conformational flexibility in AdK. In particular, the eight simulations (C1 8) initiated from the closed-state crystal structure evolved quite differently, with most simulations (C1 5) completing the transition and reaching the open conformation, but one (C8) staying near the closed state during the entire 200 ns. Scenarios from previous unrestrained simulations, such as complete closed-to-open transitions [22] and partial transitions [13] of the ligand-free AdK, were all observed in our multiple simulations here, suggesting that the variation is due to the intrinsic diversity of the conformational dynamics, rather than different simulation protocols. These simulations also suggest that some metastable states should exist between the open and closed conformations, which, however, are 1315463 not captured by our free energy profile. The timing and pathway of the observed closed-toopen transitions are also not identical in different simulations (Fig. 3). Given such diversities, it appears that a single transition tube is not sufficient to accurately describe all the conformational states, and two or more transition pathways should be explored. The transition pathway adopted here may also have missed some off-track states which may trap the protein for substantial amounts of time. As discussed in Results, the large number of charged residues and some temporarily formed salt bridges may contribute to a rugged conformational landscape featuring multiple intermediate states. Despite the large variation in the conformational dynamics here, our unrestrained simulations and umbrella-sampling simulations consistently indicate that the closed-state crystal structure is highly unfavorable for the ligand-free AdK. In contrast, conformational transitions of AdK with a bound ATP Cyproconazole chemical information analog were characterized in earlier simulations [17,18]. In particular, a recent study [18] revealed that both the open and the closed states of the ligand-bound AdK correspond to a free energy minimum, with the closed state energetically favored by ,5 kcal/mol, in contrast toAdenylate Kinase Conformationthe ligand-free case with a higher free energy (by ,12 kcal/mol) for the closed state, as similarly found here. These results thus suggest that a ligand-bound open state would be energetically more accessible than a ligand-free closed state, and further imply that ligand binding would precede the closing transition of AdK and reversely, ligand dissociation would follow the opening transition. Calculation of the ligand binding constants in the open and closed AdK conformations may shed light on this issue.AcknowledgmentsThe simulations were performed on a high-performance Linux cluster at School of Science, IUPUI. Simulation data are available upon request.Author ContributionsConceived and d.E than the open state [15]. This appears to disagree with most simulations (including our results here) and knowledge inferred from some other experiments. We note that a single distance may bear a high degeneracy of the conformational states, given the large conformational fluctuations observed in the simulations. Possible multiple conformations of AdK, as discussed below, might contribute to the distribution of the measured distance. In light of this, simulations that more closely mimic the particular experiment, such as ones with the attached dyes explicitly incorporated, would help to gain more insight into this discrepancy. Indeed, our unrestrained simulations revealed a substantial degree of conformational flexibility in AdK. In particular, the eight simulations (C1 8) initiated from the closed-state crystal structure evolved quite differently, with most simulations (C1 5) completing the transition and reaching the open conformation, but one (C8) staying near the closed state during the entire 200 ns. Scenarios from previous unrestrained simulations, such as complete closed-to-open transitions [22] and partial transitions [13] of the ligand-free AdK, were all observed in our multiple simulations here, suggesting that the variation is due to the intrinsic diversity of the conformational dynamics, rather than different simulation protocols. These simulations also suggest that some metastable states should exist between the open and closed conformations, which, however, are 1315463 not captured by our free energy profile. The timing and pathway of the observed closed-toopen transitions are also not identical in different simulations (Fig. 3). Given such diversities, it appears that a single transition tube is not sufficient to accurately describe all the conformational states, and two or more transition pathways should be explored. The transition pathway adopted here may also have missed some off-track states which may trap the protein for substantial amounts of time. As discussed in Results, the large number of charged residues and some temporarily formed salt bridges may contribute to a rugged conformational landscape featuring multiple intermediate states. Despite the large variation in the conformational dynamics here, our unrestrained simulations and umbrella-sampling simulations consistently indicate that the closed-state crystal structure is highly unfavorable for the ligand-free AdK. In contrast, conformational transitions of AdK with a bound ATP analog were characterized in earlier simulations [17,18]. In particular, a recent study [18] revealed that both the open and the closed states of the ligand-bound AdK correspond to a free energy minimum, with the closed state energetically favored by ,5 kcal/mol, in contrast toAdenylate Kinase Conformationthe ligand-free case with a higher free energy (by ,12 kcal/mol) for the closed state, as similarly found here. These results thus suggest that a ligand-bound open state would be energetically more accessible than a ligand-free closed state, and further imply that ligand binding would precede the closing transition of AdK and reversely, ligand dissociation would follow the opening transition. Calculation of the ligand binding constants in the open and closed AdK conformations may shed light on this issue.AcknowledgmentsThe simulations were performed on a high-performance Linux cluster at School of Science, IUPUI. Simulation data are available upon request.Author ContributionsConceived and d.

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