S [19], but not T cells [20]. We first confirmed the expression levels

S [19], but not T cells [20]. We first confirmed the expression levels

S [19], but not T cells [20]. We first confirmed the expression ML-240 web levels of EP subtypes in bone Benzocaine site marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) by reverse transcriptionPCR. The expression level of EP3 mRNA was the second to third among the four EP subtypes. It was about one hundredths of the level of EP4, which was the most abundant in BMDCs (Figure 1a). However, we speculated that EP3 potentially modulates the functions of cutaneous DCs because the binding affinity of EP3 for PGE2 is much higher than that of EP4 [21].DCs to draining lymph nodes. We found that as low as 10 pM of PGE2 reduced the chemotaxis of BMDCs to CCL21 when the concentration of CCL21 is 30 and 100 ng/mL, but not 300 ng/mL (Figure 1b and Figure S1). These findings suggest that PGE2 may have opposite effects on DC functions, possibly through EP3 signaling, which is consistent with the cAMPlowering effect of EP3, differing from EP4. Intriguingly, when the dose of CCL21 was high, the inhibitory effect of PGE2 was not observed. Therefore, although the inhibitory effect of PGE2 on BMDC chemotaxis was about 50 , we assume that this inhibitory mechanism is important for fine-tuning of skin homeostasis. Thus, we investigated the effect of EP3 signaling on DC migration responding to CCL21. We used BMDCs instead of cutaneous DCs to exclude the possible influences of the contaminating EP3-sensitive epidermal keratinocytes. We placed BMDCs in the upper chamber of Transwell?and counted the number of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ CD11c+ BMDCs that migrated to the lower chamber filled with CCL21. The addition of the EP3 agonist to the upper chamber inhibited the migration of BMDCs (Figure 1c). We measured the amount of intracellular cAMP in the presence or absence of the EP3 agonist after the treatment of 0.5 M 3isobutyl-1-methylanthine (IBMX), which inhibits endogenous phosphodiesterase to fix the amount of the intracellular cAMP. We found that the EP3 agonist reduced the amount of cAMP to 50 of the IBMX treatment group (Figure 1d). We also examined the effect of EP3 signaling on BMDC maturation. We cultured BMDCs with or without the EP3 agonist for 2 days and counted the MHC class IIhigh and CD86high populations, which correspond to the mature BMDCs. The number of total and mature BMDCs was significantly reduced in the presence of the EP3 agonist (Figure 1e).EP3 agonist inhibited migration and maturation of LCs in vitroTo evaluate the effect of EP3 signaling on cutaneous DCs, we prepared epidermal 23727046 LCs as a representative of cutaneous DCs that play an important role in the development of epicutaneous sensitization [22]. Consistent with the finding in BMDCs, EP3 mRNA was observed in LCs under the steady and repeated hapten applied conditions by reverse transcription-PCR (Figure 2a, left). EP3 protein was also detected in LCs in the steady state of C57BL/6 (B6) mice by western blot analysis (Figure 2a, right). We then prepared epidermal cell suspensions from ears of B6 and EP3KO mice, and incubated them for 24 hours with or without the EP3 agonist. These cells were applied to the upper chambers of Transwell?with lower chambers containing CCL21. We then counted 23977191 the number of migrated LCs as CD11c+ MHC class II+ cells in the lower chamber after 3 hours. The migration of B6derived LCs was inhibited by the EP3 agonist, whereas that of EP3KO-derived LCs was not affected (Figure 2b), indicating that EP3 signaling specifically inhibits the migration of LCs. To examine the effect of the EP3 a.S [19], but not T cells [20]. We first confirmed the expression levels of EP subtypes in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) by reverse transcriptionPCR. The expression level of EP3 mRNA was the second to third among the four EP subtypes. It was about one hundredths of the level of EP4, which was the most abundant in BMDCs (Figure 1a). However, we speculated that EP3 potentially modulates the functions of cutaneous DCs because the binding affinity of EP3 for PGE2 is much higher than that of EP4 [21].DCs to draining lymph nodes. We found that as low as 10 pM of PGE2 reduced the chemotaxis of BMDCs to CCL21 when the concentration of CCL21 is 30 and 100 ng/mL, but not 300 ng/mL (Figure 1b and Figure S1). These findings suggest that PGE2 may have opposite effects on DC functions, possibly through EP3 signaling, which is consistent with the cAMPlowering effect of EP3, differing from EP4. Intriguingly, when the dose of CCL21 was high, the inhibitory effect of PGE2 was not observed. Therefore, although the inhibitory effect of PGE2 on BMDC chemotaxis was about 50 , we assume that this inhibitory mechanism is important for fine-tuning of skin homeostasis. Thus, we investigated the effect of EP3 signaling on DC migration responding to CCL21. We used BMDCs instead of cutaneous DCs to exclude the possible influences of the contaminating EP3-sensitive epidermal keratinocytes. We placed BMDCs in the upper chamber of Transwell?and counted the number of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II+ CD11c+ BMDCs that migrated to the lower chamber filled with CCL21. The addition of the EP3 agonist to the upper chamber inhibited the migration of BMDCs (Figure 1c). We measured the amount of intracellular cAMP in the presence or absence of the EP3 agonist after the treatment of 0.5 M 3isobutyl-1-methylanthine (IBMX), which inhibits endogenous phosphodiesterase to fix the amount of the intracellular cAMP. We found that the EP3 agonist reduced the amount of cAMP to 50 of the IBMX treatment group (Figure 1d). We also examined the effect of EP3 signaling on BMDC maturation. We cultured BMDCs with or without the EP3 agonist for 2 days and counted the MHC class IIhigh and CD86high populations, which correspond to the mature BMDCs. The number of total and mature BMDCs was significantly reduced in the presence of the EP3 agonist (Figure 1e).EP3 agonist inhibited migration and maturation of LCs in vitroTo evaluate the effect of EP3 signaling on cutaneous DCs, we prepared epidermal 23727046 LCs as a representative of cutaneous DCs that play an important role in the development of epicutaneous sensitization [22]. Consistent with the finding in BMDCs, EP3 mRNA was observed in LCs under the steady and repeated hapten applied conditions by reverse transcription-PCR (Figure 2a, left). EP3 protein was also detected in LCs in the steady state of C57BL/6 (B6) mice by western blot analysis (Figure 2a, right). We then prepared epidermal cell suspensions from ears of B6 and EP3KO mice, and incubated them for 24 hours with or without the EP3 agonist. These cells were applied to the upper chambers of Transwell?with lower chambers containing CCL21. We then counted 23977191 the number of migrated LCs as CD11c+ MHC class II+ cells in the lower chamber after 3 hours. The migration of B6derived LCs was inhibited by the EP3 agonist, whereas that of EP3KO-derived LCs was not affected (Figure 2b), indicating that EP3 signaling specifically inhibits the migration of LCs. To examine the effect of the EP3 a.

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