Nd Mg2+ (3.47 mg/L) in pH 11.50 SAEW were decreased slightly, giving

Nd Mg2+ (3.47 mg/L) in pH 11.50 SAEW were decreased slightly, giving

Nd Mg2+ (3.47 mg/L) in pH 11.50 SAEW were decreased slightly, giving a total hardness of 20.23 mg/L, which is ,70 of the value for the tap water. The concentration of Na+ was increased significantly to 52.96 1317923 mg/L, ,18 higher than thatResults and Analysis Preparation and Storage Stability of SAEWIn this experiment, 28 L of tap water was electrolyzed to generate 18 L of acidic water (pH 3.00) and 10 L of pH 11.50 SAEW. The SAEW was filtered through a 0.45 mm paper filter to obtain a white precipitate that was dried to yield 0.7995 g of white powder. After electrolysis, the powder consists of salts such as calcium carbonate that are insoluble or poorly soluble in SAEW. This is equivalent to 0.7995 g of ions present in 28 L of tap water precipitated in SAEW; 28.55 mg/L salt ions wereFigure 1. pH storage stability of SAEW. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065654.gSilk Degumming and the Physical Propertiesof the tap water (44.60 mg/L), whereas the concentration of K+ (4.96 mg/L) was slightly lower than that of tap water. By the use of water electrolysis, we obtained pH 11.50 SAEW with water hardness reduced by 30 and a Na+ concentration ,18 higher than that of tap water; therefore, the strong alkalinity of SAEW is mainly due to the high concentration of OH?rather than a significant increase in alkaline ions resulting from water electrolysis.Silk Degumming Rates 18204824 of Different Strains of Silkworm CocoonCocoons of silkworm strains NC, DZC, MC and FC were degummed by three different methods, neutral soap, pH 11.50 SAEW and Na2CO3 (described in Materials and methods) and the degumming rates are shown in Figure 2d. Boiling in 0.5 Na2CO3 for 30 min twice is the most widely used degumming method but it often causes a decline of the mechanical properties of the silk fiber, or even damage to the surface of the silk fibroin fiber, and the sericin protein chain is hydrolyzed into peptides and free amino acids. As shown in Figure 2d, the sericin content of silkworm cocoon shells varies significantly among strains. For example, the degumming rates were very high for the four strains of silkworm cocoons using the Na2CO3 method in comparison with neutral soap as control. These degumming rates have reached a significant difference (p,0.01) (Figure 2d). The degumming rates obtained by the neutral soap method were the lowest, ranging from 24.5 to 32.5 with the order order CI 1011 Methionine enkephalin highest rate for DZC. The degumming rates obtained by the pH 11.50 SAEW method were a little higher than those obtained by the neutral soap method, ranging from 26 to 36 with the highest rate for DZC (p,0.05). These results show: (1) for the same degumming method, there were significant differences of sericin content in cocoon shells among silkworm strains; and (2) for the same strain of silkworm cocoon shells, the order of degumming rate achieved by different methods was: Na2CO3. SAEW.neutral soap. In general, (3) boiling in neutral soap causes the least damage to sericin in the silkworm cocoon shell; (4) the SAEW and the neutral soap degumming methods gave almost the same results. The degumming rates of cocoon shells from silkworm strains NC, (DZC), and FC and MC cocoons of the fluorescent strain were 27 , 36 , 26 and 25 , respectively. Recently, we developed a novel silk reeling method using SAEW as the swelling agent for silk fibers [31].Effect of pH on Silk Degumming RateThe silk degumming rate increased gradually with increased pH in SAEW as shown in Figure 2a. The degumming rate was 15 at pH 10.0.Nd Mg2+ (3.47 mg/L) in pH 11.50 SAEW were decreased slightly, giving a total hardness of 20.23 mg/L, which is ,70 of the value for the tap water. The concentration of Na+ was increased significantly to 52.96 1317923 mg/L, ,18 higher than thatResults and Analysis Preparation and Storage Stability of SAEWIn this experiment, 28 L of tap water was electrolyzed to generate 18 L of acidic water (pH 3.00) and 10 L of pH 11.50 SAEW. The SAEW was filtered through a 0.45 mm paper filter to obtain a white precipitate that was dried to yield 0.7995 g of white powder. After electrolysis, the powder consists of salts such as calcium carbonate that are insoluble or poorly soluble in SAEW. This is equivalent to 0.7995 g of ions present in 28 L of tap water precipitated in SAEW; 28.55 mg/L salt ions wereFigure 1. pH storage stability of SAEW. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065654.gSilk Degumming and the Physical Propertiesof the tap water (44.60 mg/L), whereas the concentration of K+ (4.96 mg/L) was slightly lower than that of tap water. By the use of water electrolysis, we obtained pH 11.50 SAEW with water hardness reduced by 30 and a Na+ concentration ,18 higher than that of tap water; therefore, the strong alkalinity of SAEW is mainly due to the high concentration of OH?rather than a significant increase in alkaline ions resulting from water electrolysis.Silk Degumming Rates 18204824 of Different Strains of Silkworm CocoonCocoons of silkworm strains NC, DZC, MC and FC were degummed by three different methods, neutral soap, pH 11.50 SAEW and Na2CO3 (described in Materials and methods) and the degumming rates are shown in Figure 2d. Boiling in 0.5 Na2CO3 for 30 min twice is the most widely used degumming method but it often causes a decline of the mechanical properties of the silk fiber, or even damage to the surface of the silk fibroin fiber, and the sericin protein chain is hydrolyzed into peptides and free amino acids. As shown in Figure 2d, the sericin content of silkworm cocoon shells varies significantly among strains. For example, the degumming rates were very high for the four strains of silkworm cocoons using the Na2CO3 method in comparison with neutral soap as control. These degumming rates have reached a significant difference (p,0.01) (Figure 2d). The degumming rates obtained by the neutral soap method were the lowest, ranging from 24.5 to 32.5 with the highest rate for DZC. The degumming rates obtained by the pH 11.50 SAEW method were a little higher than those obtained by the neutral soap method, ranging from 26 to 36 with the highest rate for DZC (p,0.05). These results show: (1) for the same degumming method, there were significant differences of sericin content in cocoon shells among silkworm strains; and (2) for the same strain of silkworm cocoon shells, the order of degumming rate achieved by different methods was: Na2CO3. SAEW.neutral soap. In general, (3) boiling in neutral soap causes the least damage to sericin in the silkworm cocoon shell; (4) the SAEW and the neutral soap degumming methods gave almost the same results. The degumming rates of cocoon shells from silkworm strains NC, (DZC), and FC and MC cocoons of the fluorescent strain were 27 , 36 , 26 and 25 , respectively. Recently, we developed a novel silk reeling method using SAEW as the swelling agent for silk fibers [31].Effect of pH on Silk Degumming RateThe silk degumming rate increased gradually with increased pH in SAEW as shown in Figure 2a. The degumming rate was 15 at pH 10.0.

Leave a Reply