Sponsible for the spicy taste of curries [15]. It is a nontoxic

Sponsible for the spicy taste of curries [15]. It is a nontoxic

Sponsible for the spicy taste of curries [15]. It is a nontoxic food that is used as a coloring agent and remains a vital ingredient of traditional medicine in India and China. More recently, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-carcinogenic properties of curcumin have been identified [16?0]. A small number of experiments revealed that curcumin treatment attenuated autoimmune diseases by downregulating IL-17 production [21] and shifting from Th1 to Th2 type responses [22]. However, its application in GVHD models has not been tested to date. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo effect of curcumin in a murine model of acute GVHD. The acute GVHD model was developed by bone marrow transplantation, supplemented with varying numbers and different types of donor lymphocytes, into irradiated allogenic recipients that differ from the donors by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class.texture, and skin integrity. Mice were 298690-60-5 sacrificed on day 35 after BMT for blinded histopathological analysis of GVHD target tissues (skin, liver, and small and large intestine) [23]. Organs were harvested, cryo-embedded, and subsequently sectioned. Tissue sections were fixed in 10 buffered formalin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H E) for histological examination.MLR Culture in vitroSplenocytes derived from 16985061 BALB/c mice were used as stimulator cells and those from B6 were used as responder cells in MLR assays. Spleen cells were removed using ammonium-chloridepotassium lysis buffer, washed, and resuspended in complete culture medium (RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10 heat-inactivated fetal calf serum, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 56105 M 2-ME, 20 mM HEPES, and antibiotics [100 U/mL penicillin, 100 ug/mL streptomycin]). Aliquots of 26105 CD4+ T cells (responders) were cultured with 26105 irradiated (2500 cGy) antigen-presenting cells (APC) in 96-well plates containing 200 of complete medium at 37uC in a humidified 5 CO2 atmosphere, pulsed with 1 mCi of [3H]-TdR (NEN Life Science Products Inc., Boston, MA, USA) for 18 h before harvesting, and counted using an automated harvester (PHD Cell Harvester; Cambridge Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA). Results are expressed as the mean counts per minute (cpm) of triplicate samples 6 standard deviation (SD). The stimulation index was calculated by comparing the anti-stimulator response with the anti-self response.Flow CytometryMononuclear cells were immunostained with various combinations of fluorescence-conjugated antibodies against CD4, CD25, Foxp3, IFN-c, IL-4, IL-17, B220, IgD, IgM, CD95, GL-7, and streptavidin. These cells were also intracellularly stained with antibodies against IL-4 (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA), IL10 (Biolegend, San Diego, CA, USA), IL-17, and Foxp3 (eBioscience, San Diego, CA, USA). Before intracellular staining, the cells were restimulated for 4 h with 25 ng/mL phorbol 12myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and 250 ng/mL ionomycin in the presence of GolgiSTOP (BD Biosciences). Intracellular staining was conducted using an intracellular staining kit (eBioscience) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Flow cytometric analysis was performed using a FACSCalibur cytometer (BD Biosciences).Materials and Methods MiceC57BL/6 (B6; H-2kb), and BALB/c (H-2kd) mice, 8?0 weeks old, were purchased from OrientBio (Sungnam, Korea). The mice were maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions in an animal facility with order PD 168393 controlled humidity (5565 ), light (12 h/ 12 h li.Sponsible for the spicy taste of curries [15]. It is a nontoxic food that is used as a coloring agent and remains a vital ingredient of traditional medicine in India and China. More recently, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-carcinogenic properties of curcumin have been identified [16?0]. A small number of experiments revealed that curcumin treatment attenuated autoimmune diseases by downregulating IL-17 production [21] and shifting from Th1 to Th2 type responses [22]. However, its application in GVHD models has not been tested to date. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo effect of curcumin in a murine model of acute GVHD. The acute GVHD model was developed by bone marrow transplantation, supplemented with varying numbers and different types of donor lymphocytes, into irradiated allogenic recipients that differ from the donors by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class.texture, and skin integrity. Mice were sacrificed on day 35 after BMT for blinded histopathological analysis of GVHD target tissues (skin, liver, and small and large intestine) [23]. Organs were harvested, cryo-embedded, and subsequently sectioned. Tissue sections were fixed in 10 buffered formalin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H E) for histological examination.MLR Culture in vitroSplenocytes derived from 16985061 BALB/c mice were used as stimulator cells and those from B6 were used as responder cells in MLR assays. Spleen cells were removed using ammonium-chloridepotassium lysis buffer, washed, and resuspended in complete culture medium (RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10 heat-inactivated fetal calf serum, 1 mM sodium pyruvate, 56105 M 2-ME, 20 mM HEPES, and antibiotics [100 U/mL penicillin, 100 ug/mL streptomycin]). Aliquots of 26105 CD4+ T cells (responders) were cultured with 26105 irradiated (2500 cGy) antigen-presenting cells (APC) in 96-well plates containing 200 of complete medium at 37uC in a humidified 5 CO2 atmosphere, pulsed with 1 mCi of [3H]-TdR (NEN Life Science Products Inc., Boston, MA, USA) for 18 h before harvesting, and counted using an automated harvester (PHD Cell Harvester; Cambridge Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA). Results are expressed as the mean counts per minute (cpm) of triplicate samples 6 standard deviation (SD). The stimulation index was calculated by comparing the anti-stimulator response with the anti-self response.Flow CytometryMononuclear cells were immunostained with various combinations of fluorescence-conjugated antibodies against CD4, CD25, Foxp3, IFN-c, IL-4, IL-17, B220, IgD, IgM, CD95, GL-7, and streptavidin. These cells were also intracellularly stained with antibodies against IL-4 (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA), IL10 (Biolegend, San Diego, CA, USA), IL-17, and Foxp3 (eBioscience, San Diego, CA, USA). Before intracellular staining, the cells were restimulated for 4 h with 25 ng/mL phorbol 12myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and 250 ng/mL ionomycin in the presence of GolgiSTOP (BD Biosciences). Intracellular staining was conducted using an intracellular staining kit (eBioscience) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Flow cytometric analysis was performed using a FACSCalibur cytometer (BD Biosciences).Materials and Methods MiceC57BL/6 (B6; H-2kb), and BALB/c (H-2kd) mice, 8?0 weeks old, were purchased from OrientBio (Sungnam, Korea). The mice were maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions in an animal facility with controlled humidity (5565 ), light (12 h/ 12 h li.

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