Gth of 1.25 A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048130.tthe heptad repeat pattern) and

Gth of 1.25 A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048130.tthe heptad repeat pattern) and

Gth of 1.25 A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048130.tthe heptad repeat pattern) and Thr40 (position d). Polar interactions of the carboxylate head group with the proposed dipole of the Gln54 ring system stabilize the ligand inside the channel. The overall shape of the electron density map suggests that the ligand molecule is rotating freely inside the channel. This is supported by the fact that a preferred lateral orientation in a stepwise refinement protocol could not be detected (see Materials and Methods). The second palmitic acid molecule is located outside the COMPcc channel and revealed a curved conformation with a kink at position C4 6 (Fig. 2B). Interestingly, the bent methylene tail is surrounded by a water cloud, and the carboxylate head group is oriented towards a five-membered thioether ring system formed by the Met33 side chains.progressively increasing the chain length from C14 to C18 resulted in a decrease in the kd value, indicating stronger binding of the fatty acid to the channel. However, increasing the chain length further to C20 causes an abrupt increase in the kd value, indicating a reduction in binding affinity. The addition of a single double bond to stearic acid almost doubles the kd value, showing that the geometric kink at position C9 in oleic acid (C18:1) disrupts favourable interactions between COMPcc and oleic acid.DiscussionThe N-terminal cavity of COMPcc is able to bind different single fatty acid molecules, with their charged carboxylate head group oriented towards the Gln54 ring system and the methylene tail oriented towards the N-terminus. The ability of COMPcc to bind various fatty acid molecules is directly related to its physicochemical properties. A key role in the electrostatic fixation of polarized ligands inside the aliphatic channel is played by the Gln54 ring system. The Gln54 residue belongs to a four amino acid motif (QVKE) that is conserved among the pentameric thrombospondins (TSP-3, TSP-4, and COMP) [26]. Gln54 is situated at position d of the characteristic heptad repeat (a2g)n, which is unusual, since the a and d positions are normally CASIN cost occupied by hydrophobic residues. The hydrogen bonds of the Gln54 ring are arranged into a funnel-like manner, such that the 1081537 partial positive charges on the amide nitrogens are oriented towards the bottom of the SPDP site funnel and the partial negative charges on the carbonyl oxygens towards the top. This creates a dipole, which is parallel to the dipole moment of the a-helices. The positivelycharged bottom of the funnel can act as a trap for negativelyFluorescence spectroscopyCis-parinaric acid (CPA) was used as fluorescence probe to investigate the fatty acid binding properties of COMPcc (see also Material and Methods). The free probe has low fluorescence in aqueous solution, however, its fluorescence is increased significantly in the event of protein binding (Fig. 3A). The binding of CPA to the protein follows a simple hyperbolic curve, indicating that one ligand of CPA binds to one molecule of protein. The CPA probe can also be used to characterize the binding 16574785 of fatty acids to COMPcc (Fig. 3B/C). Titration of fatty acids to the CPACOMPcc complex will displace CPA leading to a decreased fluorescence. This reduction in the fluorescence signal follows a hyperbolic profile as shown by the correlation line depicted in Fig. 3C. The binding data are summarized in Table 2. The fatty acids all bind strongly to COMPcc, with binding constants in the sub-micromolar range. Fo.Gth of 1.25 A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048130.tthe heptad repeat pattern) and Thr40 (position d). Polar interactions of the carboxylate head group with the proposed dipole of the Gln54 ring system stabilize the ligand inside the channel. The overall shape of the electron density map suggests that the ligand molecule is rotating freely inside the channel. This is supported by the fact that a preferred lateral orientation in a stepwise refinement protocol could not be detected (see Materials and Methods). The second palmitic acid molecule is located outside the COMPcc channel and revealed a curved conformation with a kink at position C4 6 (Fig. 2B). Interestingly, the bent methylene tail is surrounded by a water cloud, and the carboxylate head group is oriented towards a five-membered thioether ring system formed by the Met33 side chains.progressively increasing the chain length from C14 to C18 resulted in a decrease in the kd value, indicating stronger binding of the fatty acid to the channel. However, increasing the chain length further to C20 causes an abrupt increase in the kd value, indicating a reduction in binding affinity. The addition of a single double bond to stearic acid almost doubles the kd value, showing that the geometric kink at position C9 in oleic acid (C18:1) disrupts favourable interactions between COMPcc and oleic acid.DiscussionThe N-terminal cavity of COMPcc is able to bind different single fatty acid molecules, with their charged carboxylate head group oriented towards the Gln54 ring system and the methylene tail oriented towards the N-terminus. The ability of COMPcc to bind various fatty acid molecules is directly related to its physicochemical properties. A key role in the electrostatic fixation of polarized ligands inside the aliphatic channel is played by the Gln54 ring system. The Gln54 residue belongs to a four amino acid motif (QVKE) that is conserved among the pentameric thrombospondins (TSP-3, TSP-4, and COMP) [26]. Gln54 is situated at position d of the characteristic heptad repeat (a2g)n, which is unusual, since the a and d positions are normally occupied by hydrophobic residues. The hydrogen bonds of the Gln54 ring are arranged into a funnel-like manner, such that the 1081537 partial positive charges on the amide nitrogens are oriented towards the bottom of the funnel and the partial negative charges on the carbonyl oxygens towards the top. This creates a dipole, which is parallel to the dipole moment of the a-helices. The positivelycharged bottom of the funnel can act as a trap for negativelyFluorescence spectroscopyCis-parinaric acid (CPA) was used as fluorescence probe to investigate the fatty acid binding properties of COMPcc (see also Material and Methods). The free probe has low fluorescence in aqueous solution, however, its fluorescence is increased significantly in the event of protein binding (Fig. 3A). The binding of CPA to the protein follows a simple hyperbolic curve, indicating that one ligand of CPA binds to one molecule of protein. The CPA probe can also be used to characterize the binding 16574785 of fatty acids to COMPcc (Fig. 3B/C). Titration of fatty acids to the CPACOMPcc complex will displace CPA leading to a decreased fluorescence. This reduction in the fluorescence signal follows a hyperbolic profile as shown by the correlation line depicted in Fig. 3C. The binding data are summarized in Table 2. The fatty acids all bind strongly to COMPcc, with binding constants in the sub-micromolar range. Fo.

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