N criteria were: (1) patients with history of hepato-biliary or pancreatic surgery

N criteria were: (1) patients with history of hepato-biliary or pancreatic surgery

N criteria were: (1) patients with history of hepato-biliary or pancreatic surgery which changed the normal structure and function of the biliary system, (2) patients who had previously received standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication, (3) patients who had taken antibiotics or proton pump inhibitors 4? weeks prior to cholecystectomy. According to whether H. pylori was detected positive in gallbladder mucosa, patients were divided into two groups. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai JiaoTong University, MedChemExpress CAL-120 School of Medicine and signed 10457188 informed consent was obtained from all the patients.GastroscopyBefore or after cholecystectomy, all patients enrolled in this study received gastroscopy with biopsy in order to clarify the infection status of H. pylori in their stomach. Gastroscopy was performed with video endoscopes that worked in high-resolution,Table 1. Definitions of Pathological Changes of Chronic Cholecystitis.Pathological Changes of Chronic Cholecystitis Inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate Mild Moderate Severe Degree of fibrosis Mild Moderate Severe Thickness of the muscular layer Mild Moderate Severe Addipose tissue deposition Mild Moderate Severe Degree of hyperplasia MedChemExpress ML-281 Diffuse Focal Degree of dysplasia Low-grade High-grade Metaplasia Pyloric type Intestinal type Gastric surface typeDefinitionDiffuse, #10 inflammatory cells per HPF in any layer Diffuse, between 11 to 30 cells per HPF Diffuse, more than 31 cells per HPF or follicularUneven collagen deposition in #20 of material Uneven collagen deposition in 21 to 70 of material Uneven collagen or lamellar fibroplasia in 71 of materialLess than one third of the whole thickness One third to two thirds of the wall More than two thirds of the wall thicknessUp to 10 of the material 11 to 60 of the material More than 60 of the material70 of the whole sections ,70 of the whole sectionsResemble tubular adenomas of the colon without intestinal metaplasia Markedly pleomorphic nuclei and/or prominent nucleoliStructures similar to the pyloric glands in the lamina propria Goblet cells and enterocitlike cells Epithelial cells of gallbladder mucosa replaced by tall columnar cells with abundant mucin and basally located nucleiHPF: high power field. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070265.tHelicobacter pylori and Chronic CholecystitisFigure 1. H.pylori infection in metaplastic gallbladder mucosa (oil immersion lens,61000, red arrow indicates H.pylori). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070265.gwhite light mode and AFI mode (EVIS-FQ260Z; Olympus Medical Systems Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan). Two biopsy specimens were taken at each site from the greater curvature of the antrum, and the greater and lesser curvature of the corpus. Each of the two specimens from the above parts of the stomach were used respectively for culture and Warthin-Starry Staining of H. pylori.The stomach and gallbladder specimens were aseptically transferred to the microbiology laboratory immediately after gastroscopy or cholecystectomy.Verification of H. pylori Infection in Gallbladder and StomachThe presence of H. pylori in gastric or gallbladder mucosa was determined by either positive culture, Warthin-Starry Staining or positive nest PCR for specific 16s rRNA of this bacterium. At least one positive test was regarded as confirmation of infection of this agent in gallbladder or gastric mucosa.Cholecystectomy and Gallbladder BiopsyLaparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed by a single surgeon using a.N criteria were: (1) patients with history of hepato-biliary or pancreatic surgery which changed the normal structure and function of the biliary system, (2) patients who had previously received standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication, (3) patients who had taken antibiotics or proton pump inhibitors 4? weeks prior to cholecystectomy. According to whether H. pylori was detected positive in gallbladder mucosa, patients were divided into two groups. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai JiaoTong University, School of Medicine and signed 10457188 informed consent was obtained from all the patients.GastroscopyBefore or after cholecystectomy, all patients enrolled in this study received gastroscopy with biopsy in order to clarify the infection status of H. pylori in their stomach. Gastroscopy was performed with video endoscopes that worked in high-resolution,Table 1. Definitions of Pathological Changes of Chronic Cholecystitis.Pathological Changes of Chronic Cholecystitis Inflammatory mononuclear infiltrate Mild Moderate Severe Degree of fibrosis Mild Moderate Severe Thickness of the muscular layer Mild Moderate Severe Addipose tissue deposition Mild Moderate Severe Degree of hyperplasia Diffuse Focal Degree of dysplasia Low-grade High-grade Metaplasia Pyloric type Intestinal type Gastric surface typeDefinitionDiffuse, #10 inflammatory cells per HPF in any layer Diffuse, between 11 to 30 cells per HPF Diffuse, more than 31 cells per HPF or follicularUneven collagen deposition in #20 of material Uneven collagen deposition in 21 to 70 of material Uneven collagen or lamellar fibroplasia in 71 of materialLess than one third of the whole thickness One third to two thirds of the wall More than two thirds of the wall thicknessUp to 10 of the material 11 to 60 of the material More than 60 of the material70 of the whole sections ,70 of the whole sectionsResemble tubular adenomas of the colon without intestinal metaplasia Markedly pleomorphic nuclei and/or prominent nucleoliStructures similar to the pyloric glands in the lamina propria Goblet cells and enterocitlike cells Epithelial cells of gallbladder mucosa replaced by tall columnar cells with abundant mucin and basally located nucleiHPF: high power field. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070265.tHelicobacter pylori and Chronic CholecystitisFigure 1. H.pylori infection in metaplastic gallbladder mucosa (oil immersion lens,61000, red arrow indicates H.pylori). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070265.gwhite light mode and AFI mode (EVIS-FQ260Z; Olympus Medical Systems Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan). Two biopsy specimens were taken at each site from the greater curvature of the antrum, and the greater and lesser curvature of the corpus. Each of the two specimens from the above parts of the stomach were used respectively for culture and Warthin-Starry Staining of H. pylori.The stomach and gallbladder specimens were aseptically transferred to the microbiology laboratory immediately after gastroscopy or cholecystectomy.Verification of H. pylori Infection in Gallbladder and StomachThe presence of H. pylori in gastric or gallbladder mucosa was determined by either positive culture, Warthin-Starry Staining or positive nest PCR for specific 16s rRNA of this bacterium. At least one positive test was regarded as confirmation of infection of this agent in gallbladder or gastric mucosa.Cholecystectomy and Gallbladder BiopsyLaparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed by a single surgeon using a.

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