Rogressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and eventual right ventricular

Rogressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and eventual right ventricular

Rogressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and eventual right ventricular (RV) failure [1]. Despite recent Title Loaded From File advances achieved in the management of PAH, the prognosis of PAH patients remains poor, with low quality of life and high mortality rate in the majority of them [2]. This may be related to limited efficacy of targeted therapies in decreasing PVR and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling imposing an increasingly larger load on the RV. The patient outcome is predominantly determined by theresponse of the RV to the increased afterload [3?]. Little is known about 10457188 the mechanisms responsible for the development of RV dysfunction on PAH. Chronic systemic-to-pulmonary shunting in growing piglets has been shown to reproduce in a 3-month period of time typical PAH [5?] and in 6-month typical RV failure [6] features that may require decades of life to develop in patients. In this experimental end-stage PAH model, we previously reported that RV failure was associated with myocardial activation of apoptotic and inflammatory processes [8], like also observed in RV failure on transient pulmonary artery banding in dogs [9?0], suggesting common features in the pathobiology of acute and chronic RV failure.Inflammation and HO-1 in Right Ventricular FailureThe inducible isoform of heme oxygenase, the HO-1, plays critical roles in regulating inflammatory and cytoprotective processes [11]. HO-1 catalyses the degradation of heme into carbon monoxide, biliverdin and iron [12]. Its activation potentially participates in cellular defense, oxidative stress reduction, inhibition of the activation of inflammation and apoptosis, all due to removal of heme and because of the biological activity of HO-1 products. CO is an effective pulmonary vasodilator [13], which may act similarly to nitric oxide (NO), activating soluble guanylate cyclase and elevating cGMP production. It inhibits platelet aggregation, reduces leucocyte adhesion, decreases apoptosis and lowers the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines [14?5]. Via these properties, HO-1 could be therefore implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH and RV failure, controlling inflammatory phenotype. In the present study, we took advantage of lung and myocardial tissue stored during previous experiments in pigs with advanced PAH-induced RV failure after 6-month chronic systemic-topulmonary shunting to determine the expression of Title Loaded From File anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective HO-1 and to further explore the activation of inflammatory processes in pulmonary hypertensive disease and RV failure.100 and performed by counting at least 50 pulmonary arteries per lung section from each pig.Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTQPCR)Total RNA was extracted from snap-frozen pulmonary and myocardial tissue using the QIAGEN RNeasyTM Mini kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Concentration of total RNA was determined by standard spectrophotometric techniques and RNA integrity was assessed by visual inspection of GelRed (Biotium, Hayward, CA)stained agarose gels. Reverse transcription was performed using random hexamer primers and SuperscriptTM II Reverse Transcriptase (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. For RTQ-PCR, sense and antisense primers were designed using Primer3 program for porcine heme oxygenase (HO)-1, HO2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, ICAM-2, vascular cell adhesion protein (VCAM)-.Rogressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and eventual right ventricular (RV) failure [1]. Despite recent advances achieved in the management of PAH, the prognosis of PAH patients remains poor, with low quality of life and high mortality rate in the majority of them [2]. This may be related to limited efficacy of targeted therapies in decreasing PVR and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling imposing an increasingly larger load on the RV. The patient outcome is predominantly determined by theresponse of the RV to the increased afterload [3?]. Little is known about 10457188 the mechanisms responsible for the development of RV dysfunction on PAH. Chronic systemic-to-pulmonary shunting in growing piglets has been shown to reproduce in a 3-month period of time typical PAH [5?] and in 6-month typical RV failure [6] features that may require decades of life to develop in patients. In this experimental end-stage PAH model, we previously reported that RV failure was associated with myocardial activation of apoptotic and inflammatory processes [8], like also observed in RV failure on transient pulmonary artery banding in dogs [9?0], suggesting common features in the pathobiology of acute and chronic RV failure.Inflammation and HO-1 in Right Ventricular FailureThe inducible isoform of heme oxygenase, the HO-1, plays critical roles in regulating inflammatory and cytoprotective processes [11]. HO-1 catalyses the degradation of heme into carbon monoxide, biliverdin and iron [12]. Its activation potentially participates in cellular defense, oxidative stress reduction, inhibition of the activation of inflammation and apoptosis, all due to removal of heme and because of the biological activity of HO-1 products. CO is an effective pulmonary vasodilator [13], which may act similarly to nitric oxide (NO), activating soluble guanylate cyclase and elevating cGMP production. It inhibits platelet aggregation, reduces leucocyte adhesion, decreases apoptosis and lowers the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines [14?5]. Via these properties, HO-1 could be therefore implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH and RV failure, controlling inflammatory phenotype. In the present study, we took advantage of lung and myocardial tissue stored during previous experiments in pigs with advanced PAH-induced RV failure after 6-month chronic systemic-topulmonary shunting to determine the expression of anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective HO-1 and to further explore the activation of inflammatory processes in pulmonary hypertensive disease and RV failure.100 and performed by counting at least 50 pulmonary arteries per lung section from each pig.Real-time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTQPCR)Total RNA was extracted from snap-frozen pulmonary and myocardial tissue using the QIAGEN RNeasyTM Mini kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Concentration of total RNA was determined by standard spectrophotometric techniques and RNA integrity was assessed by visual inspection of GelRed (Biotium, Hayward, CA)stained agarose gels. Reverse transcription was performed using random hexamer primers and SuperscriptTM II Reverse Transcriptase (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), according to the manufacturer’s instructions. For RTQ-PCR, sense and antisense primers were designed using Primer3 program for porcine heme oxygenase (HO)-1, HO2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, ICAM-2, vascular cell adhesion protein (VCAM)-.

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