S. The effects of extraction time combined with those of the

S. The effects of extraction time combined with those of the

S. The effects of extraction time combined with those of the two other factors on the recovery of TPC, TFC, DPPH, and ABTS radical-scavenging antioxidants are shown in Fig. 2 (A, C). Under each condition, extraction recoveries increased with increasing extraction time from 46 to ,80 min, but extraction times over 86 min appeared diminish extraction yield. This indicated that extraction times L, imclearborder). The image was smoothed and filtered to remove any between 80?86 min had a marked effect on response. For the temperature of extraction (X3), a linear effect was detected for all response variables, confirming that increased temperature improves the solubility and diffusion coefficients of antioxidants and allows greater recovery. The effects of X3 were negative and quadratic, indicating the degradation of thermosensitive antioxidants at temperatures beyond a certain upper limit. The effects of extraction temperature on each of the other two factors on the response variables showed similar patterns of extractability, as shown in Fig. 2 (B, C). The response values increased to a certain value as temperature increased from 43uC to 63uC, and decreased thereafter. The cross-effect between ethanol concentration 6 temperature (Fig. 2A), ethanol concentration 6 time (X16X3) (Fig. 2B) and temperature 6 time (Fig. 2C) were proved to be negative for all response variables, which may be attributable to the poor solubility of some of the antioxidants at high ethanol concentration and to degradation of antioxidants after long extractions and at high temperatures.Experimental validation of optimal conditionsTo verify the predictive capacity of the model, 23148522 experimental confirmation was performed using the optimized conditions obtained depicted in Table 3. Measured values were consistent with values predicated by the model equation. The strong correlation observed confirmed the predictability of the response models for the evaluation of the TPC, TFC, DPPH, and ABTS radical-scavenging capabilities of C. cyrtophyllum leaves and confirmed that the response model could adequately reflect the expected optimization.Correlation analysesANOVA was used to estimate the statistical significance of 1407003 the correlations between the response variables of TPC, TFC, andExtraction of Antioxidants from C. cyrtophyllumtheir radical-scavenging activities with respect to different extraction conditions. Correlation coefficients (R2) between TPC and TFC, TPC and DPPH, TPC and ABTS, TFC and DPPH, and TFC and ABTS are depicted in Table 4 (P,0.05). Thus, the extraction of antioxidants from C. cyrtophyllum leaves was influenced by ethanol concentration, and this it may have been associated with bioactive phenolic flavonoids, which comprise a majority of the total phenols. In accordance with several previous studies, significant (P,0.05) and positive correlations were observed between ABTS and DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (0.7617), indicating that these two methods had similar predictive ability with respect to the antioxidant capacities of extracts from C. cyrtophyllum leaves and ethanol concentration [16]. However, with respect to extraction time, phenolic compounds were only moderately positively correlated with antioxidant activity. Only one Title Loaded From File substantially significant correlation was observed between TPC and ABTS (0.7318) at P,0.05. This result was consistent with a previous report showing that some bioactive compounds with ABTS radical-scavenging capacity may not exert DPPH radical-scavenging capacity [29]. Strong correlations were observ.S. The effects of extraction time combined with those of the two other factors on the recovery of TPC, TFC, DPPH, and ABTS radical-scavenging antioxidants are shown in Fig. 2 (A, C). Under each condition, extraction recoveries increased with increasing extraction time from 46 to ,80 min, but extraction times over 86 min appeared diminish extraction yield. This indicated that extraction times between 80?86 min had a marked effect on response. For the temperature of extraction (X3), a linear effect was detected for all response variables, confirming that increased temperature improves the solubility and diffusion coefficients of antioxidants and allows greater recovery. The effects of X3 were negative and quadratic, indicating the degradation of thermosensitive antioxidants at temperatures beyond a certain upper limit. The effects of extraction temperature on each of the other two factors on the response variables showed similar patterns of extractability, as shown in Fig. 2 (B, C). The response values increased to a certain value as temperature increased from 43uC to 63uC, and decreased thereafter. The cross-effect between ethanol concentration 6 temperature (Fig. 2A), ethanol concentration 6 time (X16X3) (Fig. 2B) and temperature 6 time (Fig. 2C) were proved to be negative for all response variables, which may be attributable to the poor solubility of some of the antioxidants at high ethanol concentration and to degradation of antioxidants after long extractions and at high temperatures.Experimental validation of optimal conditionsTo verify the predictive capacity of the model, 23148522 experimental confirmation was performed using the optimized conditions obtained depicted in Table 3. Measured values were consistent with values predicated by the model equation. The strong correlation observed confirmed the predictability of the response models for the evaluation of the TPC, TFC, DPPH, and ABTS radical-scavenging capabilities of C. cyrtophyllum leaves and confirmed that the response model could adequately reflect the expected optimization.Correlation analysesANOVA was used to estimate the statistical significance of 1407003 the correlations between the response variables of TPC, TFC, andExtraction of Antioxidants from C. cyrtophyllumtheir radical-scavenging activities with respect to different extraction conditions. Correlation coefficients (R2) between TPC and TFC, TPC and DPPH, TPC and ABTS, TFC and DPPH, and TFC and ABTS are depicted in Table 4 (P,0.05). Thus, the extraction of antioxidants from C. cyrtophyllum leaves was influenced by ethanol concentration, and this it may have been associated with bioactive phenolic flavonoids, which comprise a majority of the total phenols. In accordance with several previous studies, significant (P,0.05) and positive correlations were observed between ABTS and DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (0.7617), indicating that these two methods had similar predictive ability with respect to the antioxidant capacities of extracts from C. cyrtophyllum leaves and ethanol concentration [16]. However, with respect to extraction time, phenolic compounds were only moderately positively correlated with antioxidant activity. Only one substantially significant correlation was observed between TPC and ABTS (0.7318) at P,0.05. This result was consistent with a previous report showing that some bioactive compounds with ABTS radical-scavenging capacity may not exert DPPH radical-scavenging capacity [29]. Strong correlations were observ.

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