Uroleptics. There was an association with CPZ-equivalent dose and LDAEP found

Uroleptics. There was an association with CPZ-equivalent dose and LDAEP found

Uroleptics. There was an association with CPZ-equivalent dose and LDAEP found in both hemispheres in this study, indicating an elevated LDAEP (and lower serotonergic activity) with higher medication use. Furthermore, general symptoms rated on PANSS scale were negatively related to medication in that they displayed a statistical trend (p = 0.08). In a study by Juckel et al. [38] an increased LDAEP after a treatment with atypical neuroleptics compared to baseline was observed. Moreover, in a PET study, a trend toward a decreased 5-HT2 receptor binding in prefrontal cortex was found in neuroleptic treated patients, whereas neuroleptic naive patients showed similar results as healthy controls [74]. As negative symptoms also occur as pharmacological side effects (secondary negative symptoms) it is debatable if the found relationship between LDAEP and negative symptoms is an effect of secondary negative symptoms. A distinction between primary and secondary negative symptoms is not possible with contemporary measurements of psychopathology [75,76]. On the other hand, a study design including unmedicated chronic schizophrenic patients is hardly realistic both for ethical reasons and practicability. Further studies with more focus on the effect of medication are therefore needed. Another limitation is the possible influence of other neurotransmitters on the LDAEP. There are genetic association studies and challenge trials on possible influences of dopamine, glycine, and 18204824 nitric oxide [33,34,35,36]. As these studies point to a sensitivity of the LDAEP also to neurotransmitter systems other than 5-HT, the Title Loaded From File LDAEP’s specificity as a marker of serotonergic function is challenged [32]. This has to be taken into account in the interpretation of this study. Nevertheless, also these results are in part heterogeneous, e.g. an association of the LDAEP with the dopaminergic system by means of the COMT Val158Metpolymorphism [34] could not be reflected in a dopaminergic challenge trial [33]. In conclusion, the aim of the present study was to investigate the LDAEP as an indicator of serotonin functioning within the schizophrenic spectrum. In particular, we took account of the heterogeneity of clinical diagnosis by examining the accurate psychopathological symptoms. The results showed an association between the serotonergic function estimated by the LDAEP and the extent of negative symptoms directly. Our findings support the idea of differential clinical features of schizophrenia and contribute to the clarification of the aetiology of negative symptoms.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Example of loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP). Auditory evoked MedChemExpress Nobiletin activity of the tangential dipole in the right hemisphere following auditory stimulation of a 1000 Hz tone with different sound pressure levels (60 to 100 dB SPL) over all subjects (n = 26). (EPS) Figure S2 Overall distribution of the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) values between both groups. The boxplots represent medians, quartiles and extreme values of the LDAEP variable in the left (A) and right (B) hemisphere across healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. (EPS)AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank Irene Stein for her help in the data acquisition.Serotonergic Dysfunction in Negative SymptomsAuthor ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: WK GJ PR IU EG AT. Performed the experiments: CW PR. Analyzed the data: CW MPH KHWK. Contributed reage.Uroleptics. There was an association with CPZ-equivalent dose and LDAEP found in both hemispheres in this study, indicating an elevated LDAEP (and lower serotonergic activity) with higher medication use. Furthermore, general symptoms rated on PANSS scale were negatively related to medication in that they displayed a statistical trend (p = 0.08). In a study by Juckel et al. [38] an increased LDAEP after a treatment with atypical neuroleptics compared to baseline was observed. Moreover, in a PET study, a trend toward a decreased 5-HT2 receptor binding in prefrontal cortex was found in neuroleptic treated patients, whereas neuroleptic naive patients showed similar results as healthy controls [74]. As negative symptoms also occur as pharmacological side effects (secondary negative symptoms) it is debatable if the found relationship between LDAEP and negative symptoms is an effect of secondary negative symptoms. A distinction between primary and secondary negative symptoms is not possible with contemporary measurements of psychopathology [75,76]. On the other hand, a study design including unmedicated chronic schizophrenic patients is hardly realistic both for ethical reasons and practicability. Further studies with more focus on the effect of medication are therefore needed. Another limitation is the possible influence of other neurotransmitters on the LDAEP. There are genetic association studies and challenge trials on possible influences of dopamine, glycine, and 18204824 nitric oxide [33,34,35,36]. As these studies point to a sensitivity of the LDAEP also to neurotransmitter systems other than 5-HT, the LDAEP’s specificity as a marker of serotonergic function is challenged [32]. This has to be taken into account in the interpretation of this study. Nevertheless, also these results are in part heterogeneous, e.g. an association of the LDAEP with the dopaminergic system by means of the COMT Val158Metpolymorphism [34] could not be reflected in a dopaminergic challenge trial [33]. In conclusion, the aim of the present study was to investigate the LDAEP as an indicator of serotonin functioning within the schizophrenic spectrum. In particular, we took account of the heterogeneity of clinical diagnosis by examining the accurate psychopathological symptoms. The results showed an association between the serotonergic function estimated by the LDAEP and the extent of negative symptoms directly. Our findings support the idea of differential clinical features of schizophrenia and contribute to the clarification of the aetiology of negative symptoms.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Example of loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP). Auditory evoked activity of the tangential dipole in the right hemisphere following auditory stimulation of a 1000 Hz tone with different sound pressure levels (60 to 100 dB SPL) over all subjects (n = 26). (EPS) Figure S2 Overall distribution of the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP) values between both groups. The boxplots represent medians, quartiles and extreme values of the LDAEP variable in the left (A) and right (B) hemisphere across healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. (EPS)AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank Irene Stein for her help in the data acquisition.Serotonergic Dysfunction in Negative SymptomsAuthor ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: WK GJ PR IU EG AT. Performed the experiments: CW PR. Analyzed the data: CW MPH KHWK. Contributed reage.

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