Total cadmium/mg cell protein were found in the supernatant after

Total cadmium/mg cell protein were found in the supernatant after

Total cadmium/mg cell protein were found in the supernatant after the EGTA-washing treatment in acetate- and methanol-grown cells, respectively (i.e., adsorbed Cd2+ to the cell outer layers), revealing that most of the cadmium associated with the cells was indeed intra-cellularly trapped. Due to the extremely low free Cd2+ concentration, it seems likely that the complexes formed between cadmium and sulfur compounds, and not the free Cd2+, were the species that preferentially entered into cells (Table 1). To further demonstrate that cadmium was indeed inside the cells, methanol-grown cells cultured in 100 mM total CdCl2 were prepared as previouslywas 2462 and 4368 mmol methane, respectively (Fig. S5). Hence, the methane produced was the same regardless the carbon source concentration, sub-saturating or growth-limiting (8 mM acetate, Fig. 2B) for the 10 min experiments and saturating (20 mM acetate, Fig. S5) for the 60 min experiments. Activation of methanogenesis was not exclusive for cadmium, since also 100 mM of the essential trace metals Co2+ or Zn2+ had a similar effect, whereas Cu2+ and Fe2+, also essential trace metals, or Hg2+ were poor activators of the methane production (Fig. 2C). These data suggested that the activation of methane production by cadmium was not due to the precipitation of sulfur that may be toxic for the cell, as copper, iron and mercury can also form complexes with sulfur; in fact, insoluble complexes were apparent with iron. A copper inhibitory effect was previously described for methanogenesis derived from anaerobic sludge digestion [10,21]. On this regard, a positive effect of pM concentrations cadmium on growth presumably due to activation of CA was reported for Thalassiosira weissflogii, a diatom that also comes from the marine habitat [22]. Interestingly, acetate-grown M. acetivorans cells have significant higher AK, Pta, CODH/AcCoAs and CA protein content than methanol-grown 15755315 cells [23,24]. Hence, the influence of cadmium on enzymes activities from the upper part of theBiogas Production and Metal RemovalTable 2. Effect of cadmium on enzyme activities of the acetoclastic pathway upper part from Methanosarcina acetivorans.[CdCl2] mMAcetate kinase timesPhosphotranacetylase timesCODH/AcCoA synthase times with Acetyl-CoA with CO 1 1.0360.11 0.6660.21 0.6060.16 0.560.16 NDCarbonic anhydrase times0 0.01 0.1 1 101 1.3860.27 1.3560.18** 1.160.16 Not purchase AKT inhibitor 2 determined ND1 Not determined Not determined 0.7360.15 0.7760.17 0.4760.1 1.060.1 1.0260.3 0.9860.18 0.7460.2 ND1 2.960.8 ** 4.963.2 * 4.262.7 * 1.760.8 NDAll activities were determined by using freshly prepared cytosolic fraction as described in the Methods section. Values are the mean 6 SD of at least three independent preparations. Control activities were for AK: 0.7560.21 U/mg protein (n = 4); for Pta: 1.4860.8 U/mg protein (n = 4); for CODH/AcCoA synthase with acetyl-CoA: 0.37 U60.12 U/mg protein (n = 5); and with CO: 0.6860.11 U/mg protein (n = 3); CA: 26612 U/mg protein. *P,0.05 vs control for independent samples; **P,0.05 vs control for paired samples. ND: Not determined. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048779.BTZ043 web tFigure 3. Identification of cadmium clusters in M. acetivorans. Spectral analysis by HAADF-STEM from methanol-grown cells with 100 mM CdCl2 (A) or without cadmium (B). C: carbon; O: oxygen, Cu: cupper; S: sulfur; Cd: cadmium. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048779.gBiogas Production and Metal Removalreported [18] for HAADF-STEM. Although the images were diffused (.Total cadmium/mg cell protein were found in the supernatant after the EGTA-washing treatment in acetate- and methanol-grown cells, respectively (i.e., adsorbed Cd2+ to the cell outer layers), revealing that most of the cadmium associated with the cells was indeed intra-cellularly trapped. Due to the extremely low free Cd2+ concentration, it seems likely that the complexes formed between cadmium and sulfur compounds, and not the free Cd2+, were the species that preferentially entered into cells (Table 1). To further demonstrate that cadmium was indeed inside the cells, methanol-grown cells cultured in 100 mM total CdCl2 were prepared as previouslywas 2462 and 4368 mmol methane, respectively (Fig. S5). Hence, the methane produced was the same regardless the carbon source concentration, sub-saturating or growth-limiting (8 mM acetate, Fig. 2B) for the 10 min experiments and saturating (20 mM acetate, Fig. S5) for the 60 min experiments. Activation of methanogenesis was not exclusive for cadmium, since also 100 mM of the essential trace metals Co2+ or Zn2+ had a similar effect, whereas Cu2+ and Fe2+, also essential trace metals, or Hg2+ were poor activators of the methane production (Fig. 2C). These data suggested that the activation of methane production by cadmium was not due to the precipitation of sulfur that may be toxic for the cell, as copper, iron and mercury can also form complexes with sulfur; in fact, insoluble complexes were apparent with iron. A copper inhibitory effect was previously described for methanogenesis derived from anaerobic sludge digestion [10,21]. On this regard, a positive effect of pM concentrations cadmium on growth presumably due to activation of CA was reported for Thalassiosira weissflogii, a diatom that also comes from the marine habitat [22]. Interestingly, acetate-grown M. acetivorans cells have significant higher AK, Pta, CODH/AcCoAs and CA protein content than methanol-grown 15755315 cells [23,24]. Hence, the influence of cadmium on enzymes activities from the upper part of theBiogas Production and Metal RemovalTable 2. Effect of cadmium on enzyme activities of the acetoclastic pathway upper part from Methanosarcina acetivorans.[CdCl2] mMAcetate kinase timesPhosphotranacetylase timesCODH/AcCoA synthase times with Acetyl-CoA with CO 1 1.0360.11 0.6660.21 0.6060.16 0.560.16 NDCarbonic anhydrase times0 0.01 0.1 1 101 1.3860.27 1.3560.18** 1.160.16 Not determined ND1 Not determined Not determined 0.7360.15 0.7760.17 0.4760.1 1.060.1 1.0260.3 0.9860.18 0.7460.2 ND1 2.960.8 ** 4.963.2 * 4.262.7 * 1.760.8 NDAll activities were determined by using freshly prepared cytosolic fraction as described in the Methods section. Values are the mean 6 SD of at least three independent preparations. Control activities were for AK: 0.7560.21 U/mg protein (n = 4); for Pta: 1.4860.8 U/mg protein (n = 4); for CODH/AcCoA synthase with acetyl-CoA: 0.37 U60.12 U/mg protein (n = 5); and with CO: 0.6860.11 U/mg protein (n = 3); CA: 26612 U/mg protein. *P,0.05 vs control for independent samples; **P,0.05 vs control for paired samples. ND: Not determined. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048779.tFigure 3. Identification of cadmium clusters in M. acetivorans. Spectral analysis by HAADF-STEM from methanol-grown cells with 100 mM CdCl2 (A) or without cadmium (B). C: carbon; O: oxygen, Cu: cupper; S: sulfur; Cd: cadmium. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048779.gBiogas Production and Metal Removalreported [18] for HAADF-STEM. Although the images were diffused (.

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