Are suggestive of a reduced risk of anemia if AZT is

Are suggestive of a reduced risk of anemia if AZT is

Are suggestive of a reduced risk of anemia if AZT is initiated after at least one year of D4T-containing ART. However, the effect was small and only reached statistical significance in univariate analysis, suggesting that other factors changing over time like hemoglobin levels could mediate this effect. Moreover, our data only apply to individuals initiating AZT because of D4T-intolerance. Scaling-up of AZT will provide the opportunity to study the effect of duration of prior ART use on Lecirelin.html”>purchase Lecirelin AZT-related anemia in more detail. We also found older age and lower hemoglobin level to be significantly associated with an increased risk of anemia. A wide range of risk factors associated with AZT-induced anemia have been reported in literature including older age, advanced stage of HIV infection, lower CD4 lymphocyte count, lower hemoglobin level at the time of starting AZT-containing regimen, female gender, patient’s BMI and concomitant use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis [4,8,14,23,24]. Nevertheless, there has been substantial inconsistency across the different studies, which requires further clarification. Our study has a number of limitations. First, as a retrospective study using routinely collected program data, data quality might be a concern. However, standard data collection forms were used and the data were prospectively entered into a database with regular quality monitoring. Moreover, a standardized treatment protocol was in place. Although treatment decisions for clear-cut cases could be taken by the 1662274 individual physician, management ofAnemia after AZT Substitution for D4TTable 2. Hemoglobin change over the time of patients on AZT.Anemia gradeAt baseline AZT N = 1180; n ( )At the time of censoring; N = 1180; n ( )At the time of AZT discontinuation; N = 139; n ( )0 1 2 31156 (97.8) 24 (2.2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)1019 (86.4) 76 (6.4) 30 (2.5) 8 (0.7) 47 (4.0)13 (9.4)* 44 (31.6) 27 (19.4) 8 (5.8) 47 (33.8)AZT: zidovudine *No anemia: these patients discontinued AZT due to a drop in hemoglobin of.25 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060206.tmore complicated cases was discussed in team. Second, although all individuals were systematically evaluated for alternative causes of anemia, investigations available in our setting to rule out e.g. hematological conditions or nutritional deficiencies were relatively limited. We acknowledge that the reported cases of AZTdiscontinuation due to anemia in this study or presumed to be related to AZT, were without proven causal link. Similar constraints have applied to most other reported studies. Moreover, viral load testing was not done routinely. However, we previously observed very low rates of virological failure in this population [25]. Also, in our cohort as in most other Asian populations, most patients’ weight was below 60 kg. This could in part have contributed 23388095 to the overall high rate of anemia in our cohort [4,5]. Finally, our data only apply to the specific patient population initiating AZT because of D4T-intolerance. In conclusion, there was no association between patients’ body weight and the development of AZT-related anemia requiringAZT-discontinuation among patients using AZT as substitution for D4T due to D4T-intolerance. This argues against the need of weight-based dosing of AZT for this patient population as a way to decrease the incidence of AZT-related anemia. However, it needs ?to be further explored whether this is also true for ARV-naive individuals or in case AZT substitution is done shortly after t.Are suggestive of a reduced risk of anemia if AZT is initiated after at least one year of D4T-containing ART. However, the effect was small and only reached statistical significance in univariate analysis, suggesting that other factors changing over time like hemoglobin levels could mediate this effect. Moreover, our data only apply to individuals initiating AZT because of D4T-intolerance. Scaling-up of AZT will provide the opportunity to study the effect of duration of prior ART use on AZT-related anemia in more detail. We also found older age and lower hemoglobin level to be significantly associated with an increased risk of anemia. A wide range of risk factors associated with AZT-induced anemia have been reported in literature including older age, advanced stage of HIV infection, lower CD4 lymphocyte count, lower hemoglobin level at the time of starting AZT-containing regimen, female gender, patient’s BMI and concomitant use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis [4,8,14,23,24]. Nevertheless, there has been substantial inconsistency across the different studies, which requires further clarification. Our study has a number of limitations. First, as a retrospective study using routinely collected program data, data quality might be a concern. However, standard data collection forms were used and the data were prospectively entered into a database with regular quality monitoring. Moreover, a standardized treatment protocol was in place. Although treatment decisions for clear-cut cases could be taken by the 1662274 individual physician, management ofAnemia after AZT Substitution for D4TTable 2. Hemoglobin change over the time of patients on AZT.Anemia gradeAt baseline AZT N = 1180; n ( )At the time of censoring; N = 1180; n ( )At the time of AZT discontinuation; N = 139; n ( )0 1 2 31156 (97.8) 24 (2.2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)1019 (86.4) 76 (6.4) 30 (2.5) 8 (0.7) 47 (4.0)13 (9.4)* 44 (31.6) 27 (19.4) 8 (5.8) 47 (33.8)AZT: zidovudine *No anemia: these patients discontinued AZT due to a drop in hemoglobin of.25 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060206.tmore complicated cases was discussed in team. Second, although all individuals were systematically evaluated for alternative causes of anemia, investigations available in our setting to rule out e.g. hematological conditions or nutritional deficiencies were relatively limited. We acknowledge that the reported cases of AZTdiscontinuation due to anemia in this study or presumed to be related to AZT, were without proven causal link. Similar constraints have applied to most other reported studies. Moreover, viral load testing was not done routinely. However, we previously observed very low rates of virological failure in this population [25]. Also, in our cohort as in most other Asian populations, most patients’ weight was below 60 kg. This could in part have contributed 23388095 to the overall high rate of anemia in our cohort [4,5]. Finally, our data only apply to the specific patient population initiating AZT because of D4T-intolerance. In conclusion, there was no association between patients’ body weight and the development of AZT-related anemia requiringAZT-discontinuation among patients using AZT as substitution for D4T due to D4T-intolerance. This argues against the need of weight-based dosing of AZT for this patient population as a way to decrease the incidence of AZT-related anemia. However, it needs ?to be further explored whether this is also true for ARV-naive individuals or in case AZT substitution is done shortly after t.

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