E current study, we only evaluated the antimicrobial effect of 9-TB

E current study, we only evaluated the antimicrobial effect of 9-TB

E current study, we only evaluated the antimicrobial effect of 9-TB on Mp. Whether 9-TB has any antimicrobial activity against other strains of bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae, E. coli) remains to be determined in future studies. In summary, the current study has significantly advanced our understanding regarding the in vivo role of airway epithelial NF-kB activation in lung Mp infection. Our unique research approach (e.g., use of 9-TB) will facilitate future investigations into the role of airway epithelial NF-kB in respiratory infections of other strains of bacteria that are Autophagy relevant to various lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis.conditions. All of the mice were tested to establish that they were virus and M. pulmonis free.Mp PreparationMp (strain FH, American Type Culture Collection 15531) was grown in SP-4 broth for 5 days at 37uC. The adherent Mp was harvested, spun and resuspended in PBS with 20 FBS, aliquoted and frozen in 280uC for infecting mouse tracheal epithelial cell culture, as well as mice in a consistent manner. Frozen Mp aliquots were thawed, spun and resuspended in SP-4 broth on the day of infection. After a 2 hour incubation at 37uC, Mp was spun at 6000 rpm for 5 minutes and resuspended in sterile saline to yield 16108 inhibitor colony forming units (CFUs)/50 ml for infecting mice, or resuspended in cell culture medium to yield 1 CFU/cell for infecting cultured mouse primary tracheal epithelial cells.Culture of Mouse Primary Tracheal Epithelial Cells to Test the Non-antimicrobial Feature of 9-TBWe obtained 9-TB from Paratek Pharmaceuticals (Boston, MA) through a Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) for the current study. Details of 9-TB have been described in previous publications [15,16]. 9-TB is commercially available from Mark Nelson at Echelon Biosciences Inc., 23977191 Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Mouse tracheal epithelial cell isolation and air-liquid interface (ALI) culture were carried out as previously reported [25] to test whether 9-TB exerted the antimicrobial (e.g., mycoplasma) activity. Briefly, tracheas from the wild-type C57BL/6 mice were isolated, cut longitudinally and pooled for digestion with 0.1 protease. The released cells were seeded on collagen-coated polyester transwell inserts (12 well plate, 0.4 um pore size; Corning Costar, Corning, NY) at 46104 cells in 500 ml DMEM/BEBM (1:1) with supplements [26]. Cells were in immersed culture for 7 days to reach 100 confluence, and then switched to ALI condition by reducing the apical medium to 50 ml. By utilizing ALI culture environment, the cells undergo mucociliary differentiation, thus mimicking in vivo airway epithelial cell biology. At day 10 of ALI culture, 9-TB at concentrations that were comparable to Dox treatment [27] were added to epithelial cells. In previous studies [28,29], the minimal inhibitory concentration of Dox for Mp ranges from 0.01 to 1 mg/ml. Considering the complexity of mouse tracheal epithelial culture system versus the agar plate culture system used in previous studies, we chose doses of 0.5 and 2.0 mg/ml to test the antimicrobial activity of 9TB as well as Dox (positive control). Briefly, medium control, 0.5 or 2 mg/ml of 9-TB or Dox was administered to both apical and basal sides of epithelial cells. All treatments were refreshed daily for two consecutive days, followed by Mp infection at 1 CFU/cell. Apical supernatants were collected at 24 hours post infection for Mp culture and quantification.Materials and Methods.E current study, we only evaluated the antimicrobial effect of 9-TB on Mp. Whether 9-TB has any antimicrobial activity against other strains of bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae, E. coli) remains to be determined in future studies. In summary, the current study has significantly advanced our understanding regarding the in vivo role of airway epithelial NF-kB activation in lung Mp infection. Our unique research approach (e.g., use of 9-TB) will facilitate future investigations into the role of airway epithelial NF-kB in respiratory infections of other strains of bacteria that are relevant to various lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis.conditions. All of the mice were tested to establish that they were virus and M. pulmonis free.Mp PreparationMp (strain FH, American Type Culture Collection 15531) was grown in SP-4 broth for 5 days at 37uC. The adherent Mp was harvested, spun and resuspended in PBS with 20 FBS, aliquoted and frozen in 280uC for infecting mouse tracheal epithelial cell culture, as well as mice in a consistent manner. Frozen Mp aliquots were thawed, spun and resuspended in SP-4 broth on the day of infection. After a 2 hour incubation at 37uC, Mp was spun at 6000 rpm for 5 minutes and resuspended in sterile saline to yield 16108 colony forming units (CFUs)/50 ml for infecting mice, or resuspended in cell culture medium to yield 1 CFU/cell for infecting cultured mouse primary tracheal epithelial cells.Culture of Mouse Primary Tracheal Epithelial Cells to Test the Non-antimicrobial Feature of 9-TBWe obtained 9-TB from Paratek Pharmaceuticals (Boston, MA) through a Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) for the current study. Details of 9-TB have been described in previous publications [15,16]. 9-TB is commercially available from Mark Nelson at Echelon Biosciences Inc., 23977191 Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Mouse tracheal epithelial cell isolation and air-liquid interface (ALI) culture were carried out as previously reported [25] to test whether 9-TB exerted the antimicrobial (e.g., mycoplasma) activity. Briefly, tracheas from the wild-type C57BL/6 mice were isolated, cut longitudinally and pooled for digestion with 0.1 protease. The released cells were seeded on collagen-coated polyester transwell inserts (12 well plate, 0.4 um pore size; Corning Costar, Corning, NY) at 46104 cells in 500 ml DMEM/BEBM (1:1) with supplements [26]. Cells were in immersed culture for 7 days to reach 100 confluence, and then switched to ALI condition by reducing the apical medium to 50 ml. By utilizing ALI culture environment, the cells undergo mucociliary differentiation, thus mimicking in vivo airway epithelial cell biology. At day 10 of ALI culture, 9-TB at concentrations that were comparable to Dox treatment [27] were added to epithelial cells. In previous studies [28,29], the minimal inhibitory concentration of Dox for Mp ranges from 0.01 to 1 mg/ml. Considering the complexity of mouse tracheal epithelial culture system versus the agar plate culture system used in previous studies, we chose doses of 0.5 and 2.0 mg/ml to test the antimicrobial activity of 9TB as well as Dox (positive control). Briefly, medium control, 0.5 or 2 mg/ml of 9-TB or Dox was administered to both apical and basal sides of epithelial cells. All treatments were refreshed daily for two consecutive days, followed by Mp infection at 1 CFU/cell. Apical supernatants were collected at 24 hours post infection for Mp culture and quantification.Materials and Methods.

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