Estern blotting was performed (Fig. 7b). A significant reduction of GFP

Estern blotting was performed (Fig. 7b). A significant reduction of GFP

Estern blotting was performed (Fig. 7b). A significant reduction of GFP protein level was detected. Semi-quantitative analysis of the GFP band intensity corrected against the corresponding b-actin bands using ImageJ showed a reduction of 55 compared to the untreated control.Perforation mechanismTo determine alterations of the particles after laser irradiation UV/VIS spectra of particles were investigated. Figure 8 shows the spectra of 200 nm AuNPs after irradiation with KS-176 price different radiant exposures. With increasing radiant exposure a decrease of the absorbance shoulder in the near infrared range could be observed. Concurrently, the resonance absorption peak shifted to shorter wavelengths. The exact values of the shifts are presented in Table 1. The UV absorbance increased after radiation with higher radiant exposure. Small alterations in the spectra might be explained by a polishing effect of the laser irradiation: The particleFigure 7. siRNA mediated GFP knock down. A: GFP Fluorescence depletion after GNOME transfection of different siRNA concentrations. No pronounced knock down was observed in the laser and AuNP controls. Values represent the mean of n = 3 experiments +SEM. B: Western blot of b-Actin and GFP after siRNA mediated knock down of GFP. The sample shows a 55 reduction in the GFP band intensity. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058604.gFigure 8. Absorbance spectra of 200 nm AuNP in RPMI after irradiation with different values of radiant exposure. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058604.gGold Nanoparticle Mediated Laser Transfectionsurface starts to melt and as a sphere is the thermodynamic most desirable form, asperities in the surface are removed [29,38]. With increasing radiant exposure stronger narrowing and blue shifting of the resonance peak occurred as well. This indicates a reduction in the particle diameter, as retardation effects in the particle resonance are less pronounced with decreasing diameters. At higher radiant exposures, fragmentation of the particles can occur. In addition SEM images revealed clusters of melted AuNPs at a radiant exposure of 70 mJ/cm2, but no observable change on AuNPs irradiated with 20 mJ/cm2 (Fig. S1). These results clearly indicate the existence of thermal effects under the conditions used in this study. We investigated the perforation mechanism in more detail by performing calculations on the particle heating and the near field enhancement with established mathematical models. Temperature calculations utilized the model presented by Liu et al. [39], which is based on the heat transfer model developed by Goldenberg and Tranter [40]. For a 20 mJ/cm2 pulse the estimated temperature rise at the particle surface is about 650 K. This is well below the melting point of gold (1337 K). Radiant exposures above 36 mJ/ cm2 led to a calculated temperature ( 1465 K) above the melting point, thus the theoretic values correspond well to our experimental observations. The calculated temperature increase for the transfection conditions would be sufficient to HIF-2��-IN-1 cost induce protein denaturation, shockwaves due to thermal expansion of the AuNP and water evaporation in close proximity to the particle [28]. All these effects could contribute to membrane perforation, thus supporting a thermal transfection mechanism. However, a recent study by Kalies and Birr in our lab revealed a non-linear correlation between the threshold pulse energy for a given perforation effect and the number of applied pulses [41]. The corresponding sca.Estern blotting was performed (Fig. 7b). A significant reduction of GFP protein level was detected. Semi-quantitative analysis of the GFP band intensity corrected against the corresponding b-actin bands using ImageJ showed a reduction of 55 compared to the untreated control.Perforation mechanismTo determine alterations of the particles after laser irradiation UV/VIS spectra of particles were investigated. Figure 8 shows the spectra of 200 nm AuNPs after irradiation with different radiant exposures. With increasing radiant exposure a decrease of the absorbance shoulder in the near infrared range could be observed. Concurrently, the resonance absorption peak shifted to shorter wavelengths. The exact values of the shifts are presented in Table 1. The UV absorbance increased after radiation with higher radiant exposure. Small alterations in the spectra might be explained by a polishing effect of the laser irradiation: The particleFigure 7. siRNA mediated GFP knock down. A: GFP Fluorescence depletion after GNOME transfection of different siRNA concentrations. No pronounced knock down was observed in the laser and AuNP controls. Values represent the mean of n = 3 experiments +SEM. B: Western blot of b-Actin and GFP after siRNA mediated knock down of GFP. The sample shows a 55 reduction in the GFP band intensity. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058604.gFigure 8. Absorbance spectra of 200 nm AuNP in RPMI after irradiation with different values of radiant exposure. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058604.gGold Nanoparticle Mediated Laser Transfectionsurface starts to melt and as a sphere is the thermodynamic most desirable form, asperities in the surface are removed [29,38]. With increasing radiant exposure stronger narrowing and blue shifting of the resonance peak occurred as well. This indicates a reduction in the particle diameter, as retardation effects in the particle resonance are less pronounced with decreasing diameters. At higher radiant exposures, fragmentation of the particles can occur. In addition SEM images revealed clusters of melted AuNPs at a radiant exposure of 70 mJ/cm2, but no observable change on AuNPs irradiated with 20 mJ/cm2 (Fig. S1). These results clearly indicate the existence of thermal effects under the conditions used in this study. We investigated the perforation mechanism in more detail by performing calculations on the particle heating and the near field enhancement with established mathematical models. Temperature calculations utilized the model presented by Liu et al. [39], which is based on the heat transfer model developed by Goldenberg and Tranter [40]. For a 20 mJ/cm2 pulse the estimated temperature rise at the particle surface is about 650 K. This is well below the melting point of gold (1337 K). Radiant exposures above 36 mJ/ cm2 led to a calculated temperature ( 1465 K) above the melting point, thus the theoretic values correspond well to our experimental observations. The calculated temperature increase for the transfection conditions would be sufficient to induce protein denaturation, shockwaves due to thermal expansion of the AuNP and water evaporation in close proximity to the particle [28]. All these effects could contribute to membrane perforation, thus supporting a thermal transfection mechanism. However, a recent study by Kalies and Birr in our lab revealed a non-linear correlation between the threshold pulse energy for a given perforation effect and the number of applied pulses [41]. The corresponding sca.

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