He detection of secreted IL-2 by ELISA in a dose dependent

He detection of secreted IL-2 by ELISA in a dose dependent fashion suggesting its ability to sequester secreted IL-2 (Figure 5E). The specific interaction between sCD25 and IL-2 was also demonstrated using a mixed ELISA approach of capture with an anti-IL-2 antibody followed by detection with an anti-CD25 antibody. Using this approach, significant levels of the IL-2/sCD25 complex were detected in the supernatants of CD4+ T cells activated under Th17 conditions in the presence of sCD25 (Figure 5F). Together 1676428 these data demonstrate the immunomodulatory activity of the soluble form of the IL-2R alpha chain in vivo forFigure 4. sCD25 acts early during Th17 development. Purified naive CD4+ T cells from IL-17AeGFP reporter mice activated under Th17 inducing conditions in the presence of sCD25 (20 mg/ml) or anti-IL-2 (10 mg/ml) for 48 hrs and examined for levels of (A) IL-17A and (B) RORcT MNS expression by FACS. All data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047748.gsCD25 Enhances Th17 ResponsesFigure 5. sCD25 inhibits IL-2R signalling by sequestering secreted IL-2. (A ) Purified naive CD4+ T cells activated for 24 hrs under Th17 inducing conditions in the presence or absence of sCD25 and examined for levels of (A) p-Stat5 pY694, (B) intracellular IL-2 expression (C) surface binding of sCD25-His and (D) surface expression of endogenous CD25 by FACS analysis. (E) Levels of secreted IL-2 detected by ELISA 24 hours after Th17 activation in the presence of decreasing doses of sCD25 (20,10,5,1 mg/ml). (F) Levels of IL-2/sCD25 complex in the supernatants of Th17 cells activated for 24 hours in the presence or absence of sCD25 (20 mg/ml). Data shown as mean +/2 standard deviation from triplicate experiments. All data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments. Statistical Significance determined by unpaired student’s t-test, ***p#0.001. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047748.gthe first time and MedChemExpress 64849-39-4 indicate that these effects are mediated by its capacity to sequester secreted IL-2.DiscussionThe expression of the heterotrimeric IL-2 receptor on the surface of T cells plays a pleiotropic role in directing T cell responses. One such critical non-redundant role is the maintenance of peripheral T cell tolerance. This occurs through its promotion of the induction and persistence of regulatory T cell subsets while also acting directly to inhibit the generation of Th17 type responses which are considered to be critical in driving autoimmune disease [1]. Such observations are thought to form the mechanistic basis for the close association between mutationssCD25 Enhances Th17 Responsesat the CD25 gene locus and enhanced susceptibility to a number of autoimmune diseases in humans. Similar to other cytokine receptors expressed at the cell surface, the individual chains of the IL-2R are also known to exist in soluble form in serum [21,22]. In particular, stable expression levels of soluble CD25 observed in healthy adults has underscored its clinical use as a biomarker for a variety of inflammatory conditions [23]. Unlike other soluble cytokine receptors, no evidence exists for an alternative splice form at the CD25 gene locus which encodes a specific soluble CD25 protein. Consequently, the generation of the soluble form of this receptor is thought to occur through proteolytic cleavage at the cell surface by as yet unidentified proteases [24]. Levels of sCD25 generation increase upon T cell activation in vitro and enha.He detection of secreted IL-2 by ELISA in a dose dependent fashion suggesting its ability to sequester secreted IL-2 (Figure 5E). The specific interaction between sCD25 and IL-2 was also demonstrated using a mixed ELISA approach of capture with an anti-IL-2 antibody followed by detection with an anti-CD25 antibody. Using this approach, significant levels of the IL-2/sCD25 complex were detected in the supernatants of CD4+ T cells activated under Th17 conditions in the presence of sCD25 (Figure 5F). Together 1676428 these data demonstrate the immunomodulatory activity of the soluble form of the IL-2R alpha chain in vivo forFigure 4. sCD25 acts early during Th17 development. Purified naive CD4+ T cells from IL-17AeGFP reporter mice activated under Th17 inducing conditions in the presence of sCD25 (20 mg/ml) or anti-IL-2 (10 mg/ml) for 48 hrs and examined for levels of (A) IL-17A and (B) RORcT expression by FACS. All data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047748.gsCD25 Enhances Th17 ResponsesFigure 5. sCD25 inhibits IL-2R signalling by sequestering secreted IL-2. (A ) Purified naive CD4+ T cells activated for 24 hrs under Th17 inducing conditions in the presence or absence of sCD25 and examined for levels of (A) p-Stat5 pY694, (B) intracellular IL-2 expression (C) surface binding of sCD25-His and (D) surface expression of endogenous CD25 by FACS analysis. (E) Levels of secreted IL-2 detected by ELISA 24 hours after Th17 activation in the presence of decreasing doses of sCD25 (20,10,5,1 mg/ml). (F) Levels of IL-2/sCD25 complex in the supernatants of Th17 cells activated for 24 hours in the presence or absence of sCD25 (20 mg/ml). Data shown as mean +/2 standard deviation from triplicate experiments. All data are representative of at least 3 independent experiments. Statistical Significance determined by unpaired student’s t-test, ***p#0.001. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047748.gthe first time and indicate that these effects are mediated by its capacity to sequester secreted IL-2.DiscussionThe expression of the heterotrimeric IL-2 receptor on the surface of T cells plays a pleiotropic role in directing T cell responses. One such critical non-redundant role is the maintenance of peripheral T cell tolerance. This occurs through its promotion of the induction and persistence of regulatory T cell subsets while also acting directly to inhibit the generation of Th17 type responses which are considered to be critical in driving autoimmune disease [1]. Such observations are thought to form the mechanistic basis for the close association between mutationssCD25 Enhances Th17 Responsesat the CD25 gene locus and enhanced susceptibility to a number of autoimmune diseases in humans. Similar to other cytokine receptors expressed at the cell surface, the individual chains of the IL-2R are also known to exist in soluble form in serum [21,22]. In particular, stable expression levels of soluble CD25 observed in healthy adults has underscored its clinical use as a biomarker for a variety of inflammatory conditions [23]. Unlike other soluble cytokine receptors, no evidence exists for an alternative splice form at the CD25 gene locus which encodes a specific soluble CD25 protein. Consequently, the generation of the soluble form of this receptor is thought to occur through proteolytic cleavage at the cell surface by as yet unidentified proteases [24]. Levels of sCD25 generation increase upon T cell activation in vitro and enha.

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