Sures. Results: In total, 93 697 stents were eligible for analysis and divided

Sures. Results: In total, 93 697 stents were eligible for analysis and divided into five 117793 supplier different pressure interval groups: #15 atm, 16?7 atm, 18?9 atm, 20?1 atm and 22 atm. The risks of stent thrombosis and restenosis were significantly higher in the #15 atm, 18?9 atm and 22 atm groups (but not in the 16?7 atm group) compared to the 20?1 atm group. There were no differences in mortality. Post-dilatation was associated with a higher restenosis risk ratio (RR) of 1.22 (95 confidence interval (CI) 1.14?.32, P,0.001) but stent thrombosis did not differ statistically between procedures with or without postdilatation. The risk of death was lower following post-dilatation (RR 0.81 (CI 0.71?.93) P = 0.003) and the difference compared to no post-dilatation was seen immediately after PCI. Conclusion: Our retrospective study of stent inflation pressure identified a possible biological pattern–the risks of stent thrombosis and of restenosis appeared to be higher with low and very high pressures. Post-dilatation might increase restenosis risk.?Citation: Frobert O, Sarno G, James SK, Saleh N, Lagerqvist B (2013) 1081537 Effect of Stent Inflation Pressure and Post-Dilatation on the Outcome of Coronary Artery Intervention. A Report of More than 90 000 Stent Implantations. PLoS ONE 8(2): e56348. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056348 Editor: Pierfrancesco Agostoni, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands Received September 24, 2012; Accepted January 8, 2013; Published February 13, 2013 ?Copyright: ?2013 Frobert et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: The authors have no support or funding to report. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. * E-mail: [email protected] the introduction of coronary balloon angioplasty (PCI) more than 30 years ago the concept has changed little: a fluid-filled balloon is advanced into a stenosed coronary artery segment and inflated with incompressible fluid thus dilating the artery and improving arterial patency and myocardial perfusion. Before the introduction of coronary stents, PCI was a trade-off between increasing luminal diameter at the site of a stenosis and common procedural complications such as mural thrombus, dissection and medial injury which all increased in frequency in animal models with balloon inflation pressure [1]. Stents changed this and using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) it was soon discovered that optimization 24786787 of stent expansion [2] and avoidance of stent thrombosis could be achieved with higher stent inflation pressures [3],[4]. However, such observations did not translate into a clinical benefit. In a study of 934 Fexinidazole web patients receiving bare metal stents, subjects were randomized to low (8?3 atmospheres (atm)) or high (15 to 20 atm) balloon pressure dilatation [5] but there was no difference between groups insurvival or restenosis at 6-months angiographic follow-up. However, non-Q-wave myocardial infarction occurred almost twice as often in the high-pressure group. Using IVUS, a smaller randomized study demonstrated greater bare metal stent expansion after high-pressure dilatation initially and at 6-months followup but there was no difference in restenosis or target vessel revascularization rate between the high- or low pressure.Sures. Results: In total, 93 697 stents were eligible for analysis and divided into five different pressure interval groups: #15 atm, 16?7 atm, 18?9 atm, 20?1 atm and 22 atm. The risks of stent thrombosis and restenosis were significantly higher in the #15 atm, 18?9 atm and 22 atm groups (but not in the 16?7 atm group) compared to the 20?1 atm group. There were no differences in mortality. Post-dilatation was associated with a higher restenosis risk ratio (RR) of 1.22 (95 confidence interval (CI) 1.14?.32, P,0.001) but stent thrombosis did not differ statistically between procedures with or without postdilatation. The risk of death was lower following post-dilatation (RR 0.81 (CI 0.71?.93) P = 0.003) and the difference compared to no post-dilatation was seen immediately after PCI. Conclusion: Our retrospective study of stent inflation pressure identified a possible biological pattern–the risks of stent thrombosis and of restenosis appeared to be higher with low and very high pressures. Post-dilatation might increase restenosis risk.?Citation: Frobert O, Sarno G, James SK, Saleh N, Lagerqvist B (2013) 1081537 Effect of Stent Inflation Pressure and Post-Dilatation on the Outcome of Coronary Artery Intervention. A Report of More than 90 000 Stent Implantations. PLoS ONE 8(2): e56348. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056348 Editor: Pierfrancesco Agostoni, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands Received September 24, 2012; Accepted January 8, 2013; Published February 13, 2013 ?Copyright: ?2013 Frobert et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: The authors have no support or funding to report. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. * E-mail: [email protected] the introduction of coronary balloon angioplasty (PCI) more than 30 years ago the concept has changed little: a fluid-filled balloon is advanced into a stenosed coronary artery segment and inflated with incompressible fluid thus dilating the artery and improving arterial patency and myocardial perfusion. Before the introduction of coronary stents, PCI was a trade-off between increasing luminal diameter at the site of a stenosis and common procedural complications such as mural thrombus, dissection and medial injury which all increased in frequency in animal models with balloon inflation pressure [1]. Stents changed this and using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) it was soon discovered that optimization 24786787 of stent expansion [2] and avoidance of stent thrombosis could be achieved with higher stent inflation pressures [3],[4]. However, such observations did not translate into a clinical benefit. In a study of 934 patients receiving bare metal stents, subjects were randomized to low (8?3 atmospheres (atm)) or high (15 to 20 atm) balloon pressure dilatation [5] but there was no difference between groups insurvival or restenosis at 6-months angiographic follow-up. However, non-Q-wave myocardial infarction occurred almost twice as often in the high-pressure group. Using IVUS, a smaller randomized study demonstrated greater bare metal stent expansion after high-pressure dilatation initially and at 6-months followup but there was no difference in restenosis or target vessel revascularization rate between the high- or low pressure.

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