Atography and SP Sepharose fast flow ion-exchange chromatography. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.

Atography and SP Sepharose fast flow ion-exchange chromatography. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.

Atography and SP Sepharose fast flow ion-exchange chromatography. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060825.gExpression and purification of recombinant full-length Tat and six Tat fusion peptidesThe full-length Tat sequence from the HXB2 strain was obtained as described Gracillin previously [25]. Full-length Tat, Tat(1?8), Tat(1?6), Tat(22?00), Tat(38?00) and Tat(38?1) were amplified by PCR and T/A-cloned into the pMD18-T vector (Takara). The primer pairs U41/D41?1C and UC/D100P were used to obtain Tat(41?1) and Tat(22?00), respectively, using a recombinant Tat plasmid as Dimethylenastron site template. Tat(41?1C) was amplified by overlapping PCR using the primer pair Upet/Dpet with Tat(41?61) and Tat(22?00) as templates (Table S2, Fig. 1). Following cloning, verified DNA sequences were inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pPEPTIDE2 at the AseI and BamHI sites. The seven plasmids were constructed as described above and transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3). They were induced and purified by Ni-NTA column affinity chromatography, as previously described [25,26]. The purified proteins were immediately lyophilized and stored at 270uC until assayed.and sTat1-21 in 50 mM carbonate buffer (pH 9.6) and incubated at 37uC for 3 h. The plates were blocked for 1 h at 37uC with 200 ml of 4 BSA prepared in PBS-Tween 20. Next, 100 ml of a 10-fold dilution of the plasma sample were added to appropriate wells. The plates was then placed in a 37uC incubator for 1 h. After washing four times with the wash buffer (50 mM Tris, pH 8.0; 100 mM NaCl; 0.2 Tween 20), 100 ml of a 1,000-fold dilution of HRP-LD5 (1 mg/ml) was added to the strip and incubated for 45 min at 37uC. The plates were developed by the addition of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine and absorbance at 450 nm was read using an ELISA Reader. Coated pPEPTIDE2 protein and samples obtained from healthy blood donors were included as negative controls. Samples showing absorbances above the mean value of the control group plus 3 SD (0.06 + 0.14) were considered to be positive for Tat-reactive antibodies.Tat-neutralization assayThe neutralizing potential of the anti-sera was evaluated by measuring their ability to inhibit the transactivation activity of native Tat (HXB2 strain) using a HEK293T cell line transfected with a plasmid encoding for the LTR of HIV-1 and secreted alkaline phosphatase (pLTR-SEAP) (kindly provided by Dr. Udaykumar Ranga) as described previously [25,27] with minor modifications. Briefly, 96-well plates were coated with 100 ml of pPEPTIDE2 (5 mg/ml in carbonate buffer (pH 9.6) and incubated at 37uC for 3 h. The plates were blocked for 1 h at 37uC with 200 ml of 4 BSA prepared in PBS/Tween 20. The plates were then incubatedIndirect ELISA of antibodies against full-length Tat and Tat functional domain peptidesWe used indirect ELISA to quantify antigen-specific antibody levels in the plasma samples using the recombinant Tat and six Tat peptides, largely as described previously [24,25]. Briefly, 12926553 immunoassay plates (Nunc, Rochester, NY, USA) were coated with 1.0 mg of full-length Tat, Tat(1?8), Tat(1?6), Tat(22?00), Tat(38?00), Tat(38?1) or Tat(41?1C) recombinant proteinsTat Antibody Responses to HIV-1 Infectionwith 100 ml per well of 50-fold dilution of the HIV+Tat+, HIV+Tat2 and HIV2 plasma samples in DMEM for 2 h at 37uC to deplete the non-specific antibody. Then the depleted plasma were incubated with 500 ng of Tat protein at 37uC for 30 min. The samples were then added to appropriate wells containing cells and in.Atography and SP Sepharose fast flow ion-exchange chromatography. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060825.gExpression and purification of recombinant full-length Tat and six Tat fusion peptidesThe full-length Tat sequence from the HXB2 strain was obtained as described previously [25]. Full-length Tat, Tat(1?8), Tat(1?6), Tat(22?00), Tat(38?00) and Tat(38?1) were amplified by PCR and T/A-cloned into the pMD18-T vector (Takara). The primer pairs U41/D41?1C and UC/D100P were used to obtain Tat(41?1) and Tat(22?00), respectively, using a recombinant Tat plasmid as template. Tat(41?1C) was amplified by overlapping PCR using the primer pair Upet/Dpet with Tat(41?61) and Tat(22?00) as templates (Table S2, Fig. 1). Following cloning, verified DNA sequences were inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pPEPTIDE2 at the AseI and BamHI sites. The seven plasmids were constructed as described above and transformed into E.coli BL21(DE3). They were induced and purified by Ni-NTA column affinity chromatography, as previously described [25,26]. The purified proteins were immediately lyophilized and stored at 270uC until assayed.and sTat1-21 in 50 mM carbonate buffer (pH 9.6) and incubated at 37uC for 3 h. The plates were blocked for 1 h at 37uC with 200 ml of 4 BSA prepared in PBS-Tween 20. Next, 100 ml of a 10-fold dilution of the plasma sample were added to appropriate wells. The plates was then placed in a 37uC incubator for 1 h. After washing four times with the wash buffer (50 mM Tris, pH 8.0; 100 mM NaCl; 0.2 Tween 20), 100 ml of a 1,000-fold dilution of HRP-LD5 (1 mg/ml) was added to the strip and incubated for 45 min at 37uC. The plates were developed by the addition of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine and absorbance at 450 nm was read using an ELISA Reader. Coated pPEPTIDE2 protein and samples obtained from healthy blood donors were included as negative controls. Samples showing absorbances above the mean value of the control group plus 3 SD (0.06 + 0.14) were considered to be positive for Tat-reactive antibodies.Tat-neutralization assayThe neutralizing potential of the anti-sera was evaluated by measuring their ability to inhibit the transactivation activity of native Tat (HXB2 strain) using a HEK293T cell line transfected with a plasmid encoding for the LTR of HIV-1 and secreted alkaline phosphatase (pLTR-SEAP) (kindly provided by Dr. Udaykumar Ranga) as described previously [25,27] with minor modifications. Briefly, 96-well plates were coated with 100 ml of pPEPTIDE2 (5 mg/ml in carbonate buffer (pH 9.6) and incubated at 37uC for 3 h. The plates were blocked for 1 h at 37uC with 200 ml of 4 BSA prepared in PBS/Tween 20. The plates were then incubatedIndirect ELISA of antibodies against full-length Tat and Tat functional domain peptidesWe used indirect ELISA to quantify antigen-specific antibody levels in the plasma samples using the recombinant Tat and six Tat peptides, largely as described previously [24,25]. Briefly, 12926553 immunoassay plates (Nunc, Rochester, NY, USA) were coated with 1.0 mg of full-length Tat, Tat(1?8), Tat(1?6), Tat(22?00), Tat(38?00), Tat(38?1) or Tat(41?1C) recombinant proteinsTat Antibody Responses to HIV-1 Infectionwith 100 ml per well of 50-fold dilution of the HIV+Tat+, HIV+Tat2 and HIV2 plasma samples in DMEM for 2 h at 37uC to deplete the non-specific antibody. Then the depleted plasma were incubated with 500 ng of Tat protein at 37uC for 30 min. The samples were then added to appropriate wells containing cells and in.

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