Ein. Consequently, MAG_5040 could be a critical pathogenic contributor to M.

Ein. Consequently, MAG_5040 could be a critical pathogenic contributor to M. agalactiae persistence by providing essential nucleotide precursors for biosynthesis and replication, while competing with the host for nucleotide pools. The involvement of MAG_5030 and MAG_5040 in an active ABC transport system is supported by the identification of overlapping transcripts between MAG_5030 and MAG_5070 in RT-PCR analyses (data not shown). Moreover a putative transcription promoter is present upstream MAG_5030 while a Rho-independent termination signal can be BI-78D3 custom synthesis identified downstream MAG_5080. Notably, MAG_5030, MAG_5040, MAG_5050, MAG_5060, and MAG_5070 are all expressed in cultured M. agalactiae PG2T [15]. Sera of sheep and goats naturally infected with M. agalactiae collected at different infection times reacted with the recombinant cleaved MAG_5040. On the one hand, the reactivity of sera obtained from outbreaks occurred in distant geographic regions in different years with rMAG_5040, recorded up to 9 months post infection, reinforces the key role of this CASIN protein in the interaction with the natural hosts. On the other hand, the establishment of the antigenic properties of MAG_5040 opens new perspectives in the development of both high throughput diagnostic and prophylactic tools for the control of contagious agalactia. If confirmed, the importance of MAG_5040 nuclease in promoting M. agalactiae survival and persistence could suggest focusing on this protein as a target for the development of chemotherapics active against nucleotide recycling. The reactivity of MAG_5040 with rabbit sera raised against selected mycoplasmas suggests the expression of SNase homologs in most of the species examined, including M. capricolum and M. mycoides. It should be pointed out that a SNase homolog could not be identified by homology search in the genomes of these twolatter mycoplasma species. However, our results are in accordance with what experimentally observed by Minion and coworkers, that reported a Mg2+ dependent nuclease activity in M. capricolum [10]. MAG_5040 is the first antigenic protein with nuclease activity characterized in M. agalactiae, potentially involved in pathogenicity and playing an important role in the interaction and survival of this mycoplasma in the host. Further studies, such as functional proteomics 10457188 assays, might hopefully help to elucidate the interconnected role of MAG_5030, MAG_5040 and of the other components of the putative nucleoside uptake machinery, for the full comprehension of mycoplasmas life cycle, as well as to develop effective tools for the control of mycoplasmosis.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Phyre software results. Alignment coverage, 3Dmodel, confidence, and percentage of identity of the most similar proteins are shown. (PDF)Figure S2 Expression and purification of rMAG_5040. MW indicates the molecular weight marker (Precision Plus Protein All Blue, Bio Rad). Lane 1, uninduced E. coli. Lane 2, E. coli expressing recombinant GST-MAG_5040 after 4 hours induction. Lanes 3 and 4, purified GST-MAG_5040 and its thrombin cleavage products, respectively. (PDF) Table S1 Primers used in this study.(PDF)AcknowledgmentsWe thank Dr. S. Tola and Prof. S. Rosati for sheep and goat sera taken from Sicilian and Piedmont naturally infected animals.Author ContributionsPerformed the experiments: CC EC LC AMN GT GMD. Analyzed the data: CC AA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AA MFA SU BC MP DP. Wrote the paper: CC AA.
Ba.Ein. Consequently, MAG_5040 could be a critical pathogenic contributor to M. agalactiae persistence by providing essential nucleotide precursors for biosynthesis and replication, while competing with the host for nucleotide pools. The involvement of MAG_5030 and MAG_5040 in an active ABC transport system is supported by the identification of overlapping transcripts between MAG_5030 and MAG_5070 in RT-PCR analyses (data not shown). Moreover a putative transcription promoter is present upstream MAG_5030 while a Rho-independent termination signal can be identified downstream MAG_5080. Notably, MAG_5030, MAG_5040, MAG_5050, MAG_5060, and MAG_5070 are all expressed in cultured M. agalactiae PG2T [15]. Sera of sheep and goats naturally infected with M. agalactiae collected at different infection times reacted with the recombinant cleaved MAG_5040. On the one hand, the reactivity of sera obtained from outbreaks occurred in distant geographic regions in different years with rMAG_5040, recorded up to 9 months post infection, reinforces the key role of this protein in the interaction with the natural hosts. On the other hand, the establishment of the antigenic properties of MAG_5040 opens new perspectives in the development of both high throughput diagnostic and prophylactic tools for the control of contagious agalactia. If confirmed, the importance of MAG_5040 nuclease in promoting M. agalactiae survival and persistence could suggest focusing on this protein as a target for the development of chemotherapics active against nucleotide recycling. The reactivity of MAG_5040 with rabbit sera raised against selected mycoplasmas suggests the expression of SNase homologs in most of the species examined, including M. capricolum and M. mycoides. It should be pointed out that a SNase homolog could not be identified by homology search in the genomes of these twolatter mycoplasma species. However, our results are in accordance with what experimentally observed by Minion and coworkers, that reported a Mg2+ dependent nuclease activity in M. capricolum [10]. MAG_5040 is the first antigenic protein with nuclease activity characterized in M. agalactiae, potentially involved in pathogenicity and playing an important role in the interaction and survival of this mycoplasma in the host. Further studies, such as functional proteomics 10457188 assays, might hopefully help to elucidate the interconnected role of MAG_5030, MAG_5040 and of the other components of the putative nucleoside uptake machinery, for the full comprehension of mycoplasmas life cycle, as well as to develop effective tools for the control of mycoplasmosis.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Phyre software results. Alignment coverage, 3Dmodel, confidence, and percentage of identity of the most similar proteins are shown. (PDF)Figure S2 Expression and purification of rMAG_5040. MW indicates the molecular weight marker (Precision Plus Protein All Blue, Bio Rad). Lane 1, uninduced E. coli. Lane 2, E. coli expressing recombinant GST-MAG_5040 after 4 hours induction. Lanes 3 and 4, purified GST-MAG_5040 and its thrombin cleavage products, respectively. (PDF) Table S1 Primers used in this study.(PDF)AcknowledgmentsWe thank Dr. S. Tola and Prof. S. Rosati for sheep and goat sera taken from Sicilian and Piedmont naturally infected animals.Author ContributionsPerformed the experiments: CC EC LC AMN GT GMD. Analyzed the data: CC AA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: AA MFA SU BC MP DP. Wrote the paper: CC AA.
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