Escribed [59]. Briefly, the AtEHD constructs were cloned in pBINplus [60] and introduced

Escribed [59]. Briefly, the AtEHD constructs were cloned in pBINplus [60] and introduced by electroporation into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101. Agrobacterium were grown in LB medium overnight, diluted into an induction medium (50 mM MES pH-5.6, 0.5 (w/v) glucose, 1.7 mM NaH2PO4, 20 mM NH4Cl, 1.2 mM MgSO4, 2 mM KCl, 17 mM FeSO4, 70 mM CaCl2 and 200 mM acetosyringone) and grown for an additional 6 h until OD600 reached 0.4?.5. The Agrobacterium culture was diluted to OD600 = 0.05?.2, and the suspensions were injected with a needleless syringe into the leaves of 7? week old tobacco plants. Leaves were observed for protein expression 24 to 72 h after injection.Figure 7. Effect of NaCl treatment on Arabidopsis seedling roots. 7?0 day old transgenic seedlings were floated on a 200 mM NaCl solution supplemented with 5 mM Fm-4-64 for different time points (as indicated) and then washed. Root sections were visualized under a HIV-RT inhibitor 1 price laser-scanning confocal microscope. (A, B) wild type; (C, D) EHD1 overexpressing; (E, F) EHD1 knock-down; (G, H) EHD1-DEH overexpressing; (I, J) EHD1-DCC overexpressing. Scale bar = 10 mm. Arrowheads indicate round cells that appear to have lost their osmotic integrity. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054533.gConfocal microscopyCells were analyzed using a Zeiss LSM-510-Meta confocal laser scanning microscope (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) with the following configuration: 30 mW Argon and HeNe lasers, 458, 477, 488, 514 and 568 maximum lines. All images depict single sections, except where indicated otherwise. Contrast and intensity for each image were manipulated uniformly using Adobe Photoshop and/or ImageJ software.promoter containing the translation enhancer signal and the Nos terminator, generating Pro35S: AtEHD1-GFP. Primers used to clone AtEHD1 are disclosed in [25]. For silencing in Arabidopsis, a segment of AtEHD1 (474 bp from residue 1 to residue 474) was cloned in the pKANNIBAL vector in both the sense and the anti-sense orientation, flanking the Pdk intron [56]. The construct was sub-cloned into the binary vector pART27 [57] and used for transforming Arabidopsis plants.BFA, NaCl, Fm-4-64 and Neutral Red treatments/stainingRoots of 1? week old Arabidopsis seedlings were floated on a solution of Brefeldin A (50 mM, Sigma) or 200 mN NaCl or water,EHD1 Function Analysiscontaining 5 uM Fm-4-64 for desired time points. Fm-4-64 staining was examined under a confocal laser scanning microscope. For viability, Roots were stained with 4 mM Neutral Red in 0.2 MS as described in [49]. For germination experiments, seeds 1516647 were germinated on 0.5 MS alone or supplemented with 200 mM NaCl. For germination statistics the criterion used was radical emergence.ROS was purchase AKT inhibitor 2 quantified by measuring pixel intensity of pictures taken with a Zeiss fluorescent microscope.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Co-localization of EHD1 with Fm-4-64 following BFA treatment. 7?0 day old transgenic seedlings were floated on a 50 mM BFA solution supplemented with 5 mM Fm-464 for 30 minutes and then washed. Root sections were visualized under a laser-scanning confocal microscope. Scale bar = 10 mm. (TIF) Figure S2 The effect of BFA and 1527786 salt treatment on EHDSemi-Quantitative RT-PCRTotal RNA was extracted from 7 day old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings (wild type and transgenic) using the SV Total RNA Isolation System (Promega, Madison, WI) according to manufacturer’s instructions. 4 mg of RNA were converted to cDNA using M-MLV reverse transcriptase (Promega, Mad.Escribed [59]. Briefly, the AtEHD constructs were cloned in pBINplus [60] and introduced by electroporation into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101. Agrobacterium were grown in LB medium overnight, diluted into an induction medium (50 mM MES pH-5.6, 0.5 (w/v) glucose, 1.7 mM NaH2PO4, 20 mM NH4Cl, 1.2 mM MgSO4, 2 mM KCl, 17 mM FeSO4, 70 mM CaCl2 and 200 mM acetosyringone) and grown for an additional 6 h until OD600 reached 0.4?.5. The Agrobacterium culture was diluted to OD600 = 0.05?.2, and the suspensions were injected with a needleless syringe into the leaves of 7? week old tobacco plants. Leaves were observed for protein expression 24 to 72 h after injection.Figure 7. Effect of NaCl treatment on Arabidopsis seedling roots. 7?0 day old transgenic seedlings were floated on a 200 mM NaCl solution supplemented with 5 mM Fm-4-64 for different time points (as indicated) and then washed. Root sections were visualized under a laser-scanning confocal microscope. (A, B) wild type; (C, D) EHD1 overexpressing; (E, F) EHD1 knock-down; (G, H) EHD1-DEH overexpressing; (I, J) EHD1-DCC overexpressing. Scale bar = 10 mm. Arrowheads indicate round cells that appear to have lost their osmotic integrity. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054533.gConfocal microscopyCells were analyzed using a Zeiss LSM-510-Meta confocal laser scanning microscope (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) with the following configuration: 30 mW Argon and HeNe lasers, 458, 477, 488, 514 and 568 maximum lines. All images depict single sections, except where indicated otherwise. Contrast and intensity for each image were manipulated uniformly using Adobe Photoshop and/or ImageJ software.promoter containing the translation enhancer signal and the Nos terminator, generating Pro35S: AtEHD1-GFP. Primers used to clone AtEHD1 are disclosed in [25]. For silencing in Arabidopsis, a segment of AtEHD1 (474 bp from residue 1 to residue 474) was cloned in the pKANNIBAL vector in both the sense and the anti-sense orientation, flanking the Pdk intron [56]. The construct was sub-cloned into the binary vector pART27 [57] and used for transforming Arabidopsis plants.BFA, NaCl, Fm-4-64 and Neutral Red treatments/stainingRoots of 1? week old Arabidopsis seedlings were floated on a solution of Brefeldin A (50 mM, Sigma) or 200 mN NaCl or water,EHD1 Function Analysiscontaining 5 uM Fm-4-64 for desired time points. Fm-4-64 staining was examined under a confocal laser scanning microscope. For viability, Roots were stained with 4 mM Neutral Red in 0.2 MS as described in [49]. For germination experiments, seeds 1516647 were germinated on 0.5 MS alone or supplemented with 200 mM NaCl. For germination statistics the criterion used was radical emergence.ROS was quantified by measuring pixel intensity of pictures taken with a Zeiss fluorescent microscope.Supporting InformationFigure S1 Co-localization of EHD1 with Fm-4-64 following BFA treatment. 7?0 day old transgenic seedlings were floated on a 50 mM BFA solution supplemented with 5 mM Fm-464 for 30 minutes and then washed. Root sections were visualized under a laser-scanning confocal microscope. Scale bar = 10 mm. (TIF) Figure S2 The effect of BFA and 1527786 salt treatment on EHDSemi-Quantitative RT-PCRTotal RNA was extracted from 7 day old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings (wild type and transgenic) using the SV Total RNA Isolation System (Promega, Madison, WI) according to manufacturer’s instructions. 4 mg of RNA were converted to cDNA using M-MLV reverse transcriptase (Promega, Mad.

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