Rt for determination of metal concentrations stored at ?0 uC and one

Rt for determination of metal concentrations stored at ?0 uC and one

Rt for determination of metal concentrations stored at ?0 uC and one part for metallothionein determination stored at ?0 uC. Tissue samples for metal determination were put in acid-washed polypropylene pre-weighted vials and dried for 24 h at 60 uC. Subsequently, the biological material was digested witha mixture of concentrated ultrapure HNO3 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 29 ) (3:1; v/v) in a microwave oven and stored until measurement [28].Chemical measurementsWater quality characteristics (pH; temperature (uC); conductivity (mS/cm); oxygen (mg/l)) were measured on-site and at each sampling moment with a WTW multiline F/SET-3 field kit. Chloride, sulphate, phosphate, ammonium, I-BRD9 nitrate and nitrite were determined using an automated analyser (Skalar: FAS, SA 20/40). Cadmium, copper, and zinc were measured in the surface water, sediment pore water, bulk sediment and fish tissue samples with either an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES, Varian Liberty Series II, Victoria, Australia) equipped with a micro concentric groove nebulizer [36] or an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS, Varian UltraMass 700, Victoria, Australia). Concentrations of the metals in the water are expressed in mmol l21, the liver metal concentrations are expressed on a wet weight (wet/wet) basis in nmol g21. The accuracy of the metal determination was verified using certified reference material of the Community Bureau of Reference (EU), i.e. standard for trace elements in river sediment (CRM 320) and mussel tissue (CRM 278). Recoveries were within 10 of the certified values.Metallothionein determinationAfter thawing, the tissue samples were homogenized using an Ultra-turrax T8 (IKA, Labortechnik, Staufen, Germany) in 3 volumes (v/w) of 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) containing 5 mM b-mercaptoethanol (to prevent oxidation), and 0.1 mM phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride (PMSF, protease inhibitor). Tris(hydroxylmethyl)-aminomethane (Tris), PMSF, and b-mercaptoethanol were obtained from Sigma (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). The samples were centrifuged at 9000 g and 4 uC for 10 min. (Eppendorf Centrifuge 5804R, Hamburg, Germany) and ultra centrifuged at 100 000 g for 60 min. at 4 uC (Sorval Discovery TM 90 Ultra speed centrifuge, Newton, Connecticut, USA). Aliquots of supernatants (cytosolic fractions) were stored at ?80 uC for a period not longer than 24 hrs before use. Total cytosolic MT concentrations were measured using the cadmium 15755315 thiomolybdate saturation assay from Klein et al. [37]. The general concept of this assay is to remove all MT-bound Cd, Cu, and Zn ions and, subsequently, to saturate the MTMetallothioneins in Three Freshwater Fish SpeciesMetallothioneins in Three Freshwater Fish SpeciesFigure 2. Mean metal concentration (?standard deviation) in liver of the three fish species in mg g21 dry weight. (a) Cd, (b) Cu, (c) Zn. Different letters (A, a or a for respectively Roach, Perch and Gudgeon) mean significant differences in hepatic tissue within a species (p , 0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060805.gmolecules with the 109Cd isotope, which was quantified using a MedChemExpress ��-Sitosterol ��-D-glucoside Minaxi-Autogamma 5530 counter (Canberra Packard, Boston, MA, USA). The excessive 109Cd was complexed by Chelex-100 (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany). The MT concentrations were calculated on the basis of a molar ratio of Cd/MT of 7 [38]. It has been shown that this method compares very well with other established techniques such as ELISA or the Ag-saturat.Rt for determination of metal concentrations stored at ?0 uC and one part for metallothionein determination stored at ?0 uC. Tissue samples for metal determination were put in acid-washed polypropylene pre-weighted vials and dried for 24 h at 60 uC. Subsequently, the biological material was digested witha mixture of concentrated ultrapure HNO3 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 29 ) (3:1; v/v) in a microwave oven and stored until measurement [28].Chemical measurementsWater quality characteristics (pH; temperature (uC); conductivity (mS/cm); oxygen (mg/l)) were measured on-site and at each sampling moment with a WTW multiline F/SET-3 field kit. Chloride, sulphate, phosphate, ammonium, nitrate and nitrite were determined using an automated analyser (Skalar: FAS, SA 20/40). Cadmium, copper, and zinc were measured in the surface water, sediment pore water, bulk sediment and fish tissue samples with either an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES, Varian Liberty Series II, Victoria, Australia) equipped with a micro concentric groove nebulizer [36] or an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS, Varian UltraMass 700, Victoria, Australia). Concentrations of the metals in the water are expressed in mmol l21, the liver metal concentrations are expressed on a wet weight (wet/wet) basis in nmol g21. The accuracy of the metal determination was verified using certified reference material of the Community Bureau of Reference (EU), i.e. standard for trace elements in river sediment (CRM 320) and mussel tissue (CRM 278). Recoveries were within 10 of the certified values.Metallothionein determinationAfter thawing, the tissue samples were homogenized using an Ultra-turrax T8 (IKA, Labortechnik, Staufen, Germany) in 3 volumes (v/w) of 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) containing 5 mM b-mercaptoethanol (to prevent oxidation), and 0.1 mM phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride (PMSF, protease inhibitor). Tris(hydroxylmethyl)-aminomethane (Tris), PMSF, and b-mercaptoethanol were obtained from Sigma (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). The samples were centrifuged at 9000 g and 4 uC for 10 min. (Eppendorf Centrifuge 5804R, Hamburg, Germany) and ultra centrifuged at 100 000 g for 60 min. at 4 uC (Sorval Discovery TM 90 Ultra speed centrifuge, Newton, Connecticut, USA). Aliquots of supernatants (cytosolic fractions) were stored at ?80 uC for a period not longer than 24 hrs before use. Total cytosolic MT concentrations were measured using the cadmium 15755315 thiomolybdate saturation assay from Klein et al. [37]. The general concept of this assay is to remove all MT-bound Cd, Cu, and Zn ions and, subsequently, to saturate the MTMetallothioneins in Three Freshwater Fish SpeciesMetallothioneins in Three Freshwater Fish SpeciesFigure 2. Mean metal concentration (?standard deviation) in liver of the three fish species in mg g21 dry weight. (a) Cd, (b) Cu, (c) Zn. Different letters (A, a or a for respectively Roach, Perch and Gudgeon) mean significant differences in hepatic tissue within a species (p , 0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060805.gmolecules with the 109Cd isotope, which was quantified using a Minaxi-Autogamma 5530 counter (Canberra Packard, Boston, MA, USA). The excessive 109Cd was complexed by Chelex-100 (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany). The MT concentrations were calculated on the basis of a molar ratio of Cd/MT of 7 [38]. It has been shown that this method compares very well with other established techniques such as ELISA or the Ag-saturat.

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