Iants. The results parallel those observed for the Apfor expression, with

Iants. The results parallel those observed for the Apfor expression, with a significant higher activity in VWLc aphids. This reinforces the hypothesis of an existing correlation between Apfor expression and aphid behavior. Taken together, our results suggest that Apfor may induce a foraging behavior in some wingless adults under crowded conditions acting as a promoting signal to find better environmental niches in a short delay. Foragers would have a weaker Apfor transcript and PKG activity level, maybe as a residual expression after the behavioral switch initiated by Apfor. Considering that a stimulus is certainly required to shift from a sedentary to a dispersal behavior, the for gene is a promising candidate to fulfill this role. Complementary behavioral experiments are now needed to determine unambiguously whether wingless sedentary adults reared under crowded conditions and presenting an increased Apfor level are those which subsequently forage their environment. To our knowledge, the detailed behavior of wingless adult Title Loaded From File aphids has not been described yet. In addition, the exact nature of the stimulus and its molecular targets still have to be identified. In the honeybee A. mellifera, the occurrence of a peak in Amfor expression, rather than a slowly upcoming and continuous high expression level, suggests that the transition from nurses to foragers outside the hive is triggered by Amfor [14]. In the same way, in the harvester ant P. occidentalis a daily fluctuation occurs in the expression of the for ortholog Pofor. A peak of mRNA level is observed in foragers at midday [19] while nest workers show lower levels of Pofor mRNA during the day and similar or higher levels in late evening and early morning hours. Interestingly, in a related harvester ant P. barbatus, Ingram and colleagues [17] showed a lower expression of Pbfor in foragers than in workers but the study was limited to the collection of workers at a single time in the day (as we did with pea aphids). As the sampled workers were collected in the field in early morning, it cannot be excluded that the Pbfor expression fluctuates in a similar pattern as Pofor in the daytime. In laboratory conditions, the population density of pea aphids had to be very high with confluent adults to simultaneously allow the production 23148522 of winged morphs and wingless behavioral variants. As a consequence, it was very difficult to collect synchronous Title Loaded From File individuals for all qPCR replicates, which might thus explain the high range of standard errors for our experiments (Figure 3). As in the harvester ants, the Apfor gene might be highly expressed at a specific time in the day or in the life cycle of only part of pea aphid wingless individuals, in response to an external stimulus triggering their foraging behavior. Complementary experiments are needed to determine the timing of Apfor expression in wingless pea aphids under crowded conditions, and to question whether all individuals or only some of them differentially express Apfor in order to establish a specific relationship between this gene and behavior plasticity. As in other species, the nature of the interacting stimuli and their molecular targets remain also to be determined. In nematodes, odors and pheromones act to stimulate and regulate the expression of the for ortholog Egl-4 [29] and in the nematodePristionchus pacificus, Ppa-egl-4 is directly implicated in the attraction to the pheromone emitted by its insect host [30]. Could the pea aphid ala.Iants. The results parallel those observed for the Apfor expression, with a significant higher activity in VWLc aphids. This reinforces the hypothesis of an existing correlation between Apfor expression and aphid behavior. Taken together, our results suggest that Apfor may induce a foraging behavior in some wingless adults under crowded conditions acting as a promoting signal to find better environmental niches in a short delay. Foragers would have a weaker Apfor transcript and PKG activity level, maybe as a residual expression after the behavioral switch initiated by Apfor. Considering that a stimulus is certainly required to shift from a sedentary to a dispersal behavior, the for gene is a promising candidate to fulfill this role. Complementary behavioral experiments are now needed to determine unambiguously whether wingless sedentary adults reared under crowded conditions and presenting an increased Apfor level are those which subsequently forage their environment. To our knowledge, the detailed behavior of wingless adult aphids has not been described yet. In addition, the exact nature of the stimulus and its molecular targets still have to be identified. In the honeybee A. mellifera, the occurrence of a peak in Amfor expression, rather than a slowly upcoming and continuous high expression level, suggests that the transition from nurses to foragers outside the hive is triggered by Amfor [14]. In the same way, in the harvester ant P. occidentalis a daily fluctuation occurs in the expression of the for ortholog Pofor. A peak of mRNA level is observed in foragers at midday [19] while nest workers show lower levels of Pofor mRNA during the day and similar or higher levels in late evening and early morning hours. Interestingly, in a related harvester ant P. barbatus, Ingram and colleagues [17] showed a lower expression of Pbfor in foragers than in workers but the study was limited to the collection of workers at a single time in the day (as we did with pea aphids). As the sampled workers were collected in the field in early morning, it cannot be excluded that the Pbfor expression fluctuates in a similar pattern as Pofor in the daytime. In laboratory conditions, the population density of pea aphids had to be very high with confluent adults to simultaneously allow the production 23148522 of winged morphs and wingless behavioral variants. As a consequence, it was very difficult to collect synchronous individuals for all qPCR replicates, which might thus explain the high range of standard errors for our experiments (Figure 3). As in the harvester ants, the Apfor gene might be highly expressed at a specific time in the day or in the life cycle of only part of pea aphid wingless individuals, in response to an external stimulus triggering their foraging behavior. Complementary experiments are needed to determine the timing of Apfor expression in wingless pea aphids under crowded conditions, and to question whether all individuals or only some of them differentially express Apfor in order to establish a specific relationship between this gene and behavior plasticity. As in other species, the nature of the interacting stimuli and their molecular targets remain also to be determined. In nematodes, odors and pheromones act to stimulate and regulate the expression of the for ortholog Egl-4 [29] and in the nematodePristionchus pacificus, Ppa-egl-4 is directly implicated in the attraction to the pheromone emitted by its insect host [30]. Could the pea aphid ala.

Leave a Reply