Ring from O157-associated HUS produce specific EHEC-Ehx antibodies in almost

Ring from O157-associated HUS produce specific EHEC-Ehx antibodies in almost all cases [18]. The EHEC-Ehx is a highly active repeats-in-toxin with poreforming capacity similar but not identical to that of chromosomal encoded E. coli a-hemolysin. The presence of a-hemolysin in enteroaggregative and cytodetaching Escherichia coli strains SIS-3 appears to play a critical role in both oncosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages and apoptosis in the murine macrophage cell line (J774 cells) [26]. The hemolysin A of E. coli was found to increase the permeability of human macrophages by forming ionic pores [27]. Bauer and Welch found that EHEC-Ehx lysed bovine but not human lymphoma cells. They hypothesized that the target cell specificity of EHEC-Ehx might be narrow [28]. Kartch’s group has reported that the EHEC-Ehx is cytotoxic to human brain microvascular endothelial cells and that this toxicity may 1326631 contribute to the virulence of the stx-negative E. coli O26 strains [29]. Our data provide clear evidence that EHEC-Ehx encoded on the plasmid of EDL933 contributed to the cytotoxicity of EHEC in THP-1 cells. Macrophages are the main producers of proinflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial infection and the cytotoxicity of the macrophages can affect the host immune response to bacterial invasion and affect the pathogenesis of EHEC O157:H7 infection. Previous studies have shown that the inflammatory response is involved in the pathogenesis of EHEC O157:H7 infection [30?32]. HUS patients show an increase in a variety of circulating proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1b, TNF-a, and IL-8, in response to EHEC O157:H7 infection [30?2]. However, which components of EHEC O157:H7 contribute to the elevated level of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines through macrophage activity has not been well demonstrated. In this study, we demonstrated that the EHEC-Ehx induced a higher level of mature IL-1b in THP-1 cells. Other cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, RANETS/CCL5,Figure 5. Roles of caspase-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), and the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) in EHEC O157:H7-induced IL-1b production. THP-1 cells were transfected with control siRNA or siRNA specific to caspase-1, ASC, or NLRP3, respectively. After 48 h, cells were infected with EDL933, DehxA, DpO157, and DehxA/pehxA, respectively. (A) Knockdown of caspase-1, ASC, and NLRP3, was assayed by Western blotting. (B) Cell culture supernatants were collected 4 h after infection and subjected to IL-1b ELISA. Results represent the mean 6 S.D. of three independent experiments. Significant differences (**p,0.01, *P,0.05) were indicated. n.s., no significant differences (P.0.05). doi:10.1371/Pentagastrin site journal.pone.0050288.gEnterohemolysin Induced Release of IL-1bFigure 6. Expression of inflammasome components in differentiated THP-1 cells. Differentiated THP-1 cells were left untreated or were infected with EDL933 or DehxA. They were then lysed over 4 h postinfection. mRNA expression of selected genes was analyzed using RT-PCR. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050288.gMCP-1, TNF-a, and IFN-c) were also examined and none of them were induced by Ehx. IL-1b is an important proinflammatory mediator. It exerts a variety of biological effects. During EHEC O157:H7 infection, IL1b is a potent inducer of fever and inflammatory response. It can disrupt the intestinal barrier, permitting transport of Stxs into the circulatory system [33]. IL-1b was also found to be involv.Ring from O157-associated HUS produce specific EHEC-Ehx antibodies in almost all cases [18]. The EHEC-Ehx is a highly active repeats-in-toxin with poreforming capacity similar but not identical to that of chromosomal encoded E. coli a-hemolysin. The presence of a-hemolysin in enteroaggregative and cytodetaching Escherichia coli strains appears to play a critical role in both oncosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages and apoptosis in the murine macrophage cell line (J774 cells) [26]. The hemolysin A of E. coli was found to increase the permeability of human macrophages by forming ionic pores [27]. Bauer and Welch found that EHEC-Ehx lysed bovine but not human lymphoma cells. They hypothesized that the target cell specificity of EHEC-Ehx might be narrow [28]. Kartch’s group has reported that the EHEC-Ehx is cytotoxic to human brain microvascular endothelial cells and that this toxicity may 1326631 contribute to the virulence of the stx-negative E. coli O26 strains [29]. Our data provide clear evidence that EHEC-Ehx encoded on the plasmid of EDL933 contributed to the cytotoxicity of EHEC in THP-1 cells. Macrophages are the main producers of proinflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial infection and the cytotoxicity of the macrophages can affect the host immune response to bacterial invasion and affect the pathogenesis of EHEC O157:H7 infection. Previous studies have shown that the inflammatory response is involved in the pathogenesis of EHEC O157:H7 infection [30?32]. HUS patients show an increase in a variety of circulating proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1b, TNF-a, and IL-8, in response to EHEC O157:H7 infection [30?2]. However, which components of EHEC O157:H7 contribute to the elevated level of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines through macrophage activity has not been well demonstrated. In this study, we demonstrated that the EHEC-Ehx induced a higher level of mature IL-1b in THP-1 cells. Other cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, RANETS/CCL5,Figure 5. Roles of caspase-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), and the NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) in EHEC O157:H7-induced IL-1b production. THP-1 cells were transfected with control siRNA or siRNA specific to caspase-1, ASC, or NLRP3, respectively. After 48 h, cells were infected with EDL933, DehxA, DpO157, and DehxA/pehxA, respectively. (A) Knockdown of caspase-1, ASC, and NLRP3, was assayed by Western blotting. (B) Cell culture supernatants were collected 4 h after infection and subjected to IL-1b ELISA. Results represent the mean 6 S.D. of three independent experiments. Significant differences (**p,0.01, *P,0.05) were indicated. n.s., no significant differences (P.0.05). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050288.gEnterohemolysin Induced Release of IL-1bFigure 6. Expression of inflammasome components in differentiated THP-1 cells. Differentiated THP-1 cells were left untreated or were infected with EDL933 or DehxA. They were then lysed over 4 h postinfection. mRNA expression of selected genes was analyzed using RT-PCR. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050288.gMCP-1, TNF-a, and IFN-c) were also examined and none of them were induced by Ehx. IL-1b is an important proinflammatory mediator. It exerts a variety of biological effects. During EHEC O157:H7 infection, IL1b is a potent inducer of fever and inflammatory response. It can disrupt the intestinal barrier, permitting transport of Stxs into the circulatory system [33]. IL-1b was also found to be involv.

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