Romatid breaks were not promptly repaired by end-joining but underwent further

Romatid breaks were not promptly repaired by end-joining but underwent further

Romatid breaks were not promptly repaired by end-joining but underwent further rearrangement with other broken ends or even remained un-rejoined up to duplication in S phase, thus forming chromosomal type breaks 72 h after removal of APH (exemplified in Figure 3B, second panel).Telomerase-immortalized Cells without HPV16 E6E7 Expression did not Exhibit 25033180 Preferential Pericentromeric Terlipressin aberrations in Successive Cell Generations After Replication StressThe question remained as to whether the preferential pericentromeric instability in HPV16 E6E7-hTERT-immortalized cells was due to the expression HPV16 E6E7 or hTERT. We then examined whether immortalized cells without HPV16 E6E7 expression also had preferential pericentromeric instability. To address this issue, we utilized our hTERT-immortalized esophageal epithelial cell line (NE2-hTERT) [32] and another recently established cervical epithelial cell line immortalized by stable p16INK4a knockdown and hTERT expression (designated as NC104-shp16-hTERT). NE2-hTERT and NC104-shp16hTERT were of the same cell origins as NE2-E6E7hTERT and NC104-E6E7hTERT, respectively. The stable knockdown of p16INK4a, achieved by expression of short-hairpin p16INK4a encoded by lentiviral vectors, was confirmed by Western Blotting in Bromopyruvic acid NC104-shp16-hTERT cells as compared with proliferating early-passage parental cells (Figure S3). The loss of p16INK4a in NE2-hTERT cell line was confirmed previously [32]. Inactivation of p16INK4a/Rb pathway and activation of telomerase are theminimal requirements for immortalization of epithelial cells without using viral oncogenes [34]. The Rb pathway was inactivated through E7 expression in the HPV16 E6E7-hTERTimmortalized cell lines. The levels of p16INK4a protein expression were found increased in these cell lines as compared with early passage (PD #4) parental cells (Figure S3). This is consistent with previous report that p16INK4a expression increases as a negative feedback control once Rb is inactivated [35]. Karyotype analyses of NE2-hTERT and NC104-shp16-hTERT cell lines at PD 60 showed that NC104-shp16-hTERT had a normal karyotype; NE2-hTERT had a single clonal aberration in every analyzed cell, indicating stable expansion from a single cell at an early passage [32]. When analyzed at a later PD (PD80), NE2-hTERT and NC104-shp16-hTERT cells were found to contain 2 and 3 clonal aberrations, respectively. But no non-clonal structural aberrations were found in 100 metaphases of either cell line at both PDs, indicating that NE2-hTERT and NC104-shp16-hTERT cell line had much lower levels of background genomic instability than cell lines immortalized by co-expression of HPV16 E6E7 and hTERT (Table S1). We treated NE2-hTERT and NC104-shp16-hTERT cells with APH or vehicle for 24 h, and cells were harvested at the end of the treatment or 72 h after APH removal. One hundred metaphases were analyzed per cell line using SKY for chromosome aberrations. Chromatid breaks were readily identified in both cell lines at the end of APH treatment (Figure 4A), but not in vehicle-treated cells. Centromeric or pericentromeric chromatid breaks accounted for about 20 of total chromatid breaks in either cell line. However, both cell lines exhibited only a few structural aberrations (chromatid breaks, chromosomal arrangements, breaks and deletions pooled) in 100 metaphases 72 h after release from APH treatment, with no significant difference between the frequencies of pericentromeric and non-pericentrom.Romatid breaks were not promptly repaired by end-joining but underwent further rearrangement with other broken ends or even remained un-rejoined up to duplication in S phase, thus forming chromosomal type breaks 72 h after removal of APH (exemplified in Figure 3B, second panel).Telomerase-immortalized Cells without HPV16 E6E7 Expression did not Exhibit 25033180 Preferential Pericentromeric Aberrations in Successive Cell Generations After Replication StressThe question remained as to whether the preferential pericentromeric instability in HPV16 E6E7-hTERT-immortalized cells was due to the expression HPV16 E6E7 or hTERT. We then examined whether immortalized cells without HPV16 E6E7 expression also had preferential pericentromeric instability. To address this issue, we utilized our hTERT-immortalized esophageal epithelial cell line (NE2-hTERT) [32] and another recently established cervical epithelial cell line immortalized by stable p16INK4a knockdown and hTERT expression (designated as NC104-shp16-hTERT). NE2-hTERT and NC104-shp16hTERT were of the same cell origins as NE2-E6E7hTERT and NC104-E6E7hTERT, respectively. The stable knockdown of p16INK4a, achieved by expression of short-hairpin p16INK4a encoded by lentiviral vectors, was confirmed by Western Blotting in NC104-shp16-hTERT cells as compared with proliferating early-passage parental cells (Figure S3). The loss of p16INK4a in NE2-hTERT cell line was confirmed previously [32]. Inactivation of p16INK4a/Rb pathway and activation of telomerase are theminimal requirements for immortalization of epithelial cells without using viral oncogenes [34]. The Rb pathway was inactivated through E7 expression in the HPV16 E6E7-hTERTimmortalized cell lines. The levels of p16INK4a protein expression were found increased in these cell lines as compared with early passage (PD #4) parental cells (Figure S3). This is consistent with previous report that p16INK4a expression increases as a negative feedback control once Rb is inactivated [35]. Karyotype analyses of NE2-hTERT and NC104-shp16-hTERT cell lines at PD 60 showed that NC104-shp16-hTERT had a normal karyotype; NE2-hTERT had a single clonal aberration in every analyzed cell, indicating stable expansion from a single cell at an early passage [32]. When analyzed at a later PD (PD80), NE2-hTERT and NC104-shp16-hTERT cells were found to contain 2 and 3 clonal aberrations, respectively. But no non-clonal structural aberrations were found in 100 metaphases of either cell line at both PDs, indicating that NE2-hTERT and NC104-shp16-hTERT cell line had much lower levels of background genomic instability than cell lines immortalized by co-expression of HPV16 E6E7 and hTERT (Table S1). We treated NE2-hTERT and NC104-shp16-hTERT cells with APH or vehicle for 24 h, and cells were harvested at the end of the treatment or 72 h after APH removal. One hundred metaphases were analyzed per cell line using SKY for chromosome aberrations. Chromatid breaks were readily identified in both cell lines at the end of APH treatment (Figure 4A), but not in vehicle-treated cells. Centromeric or pericentromeric chromatid breaks accounted for about 20 of total chromatid breaks in either cell line. However, both cell lines exhibited only a few structural aberrations (chromatid breaks, chromosomal arrangements, breaks and deletions pooled) in 100 metaphases 72 h after release from APH treatment, with no significant difference between the frequencies of pericentromeric and non-pericentrom.

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