Were filtered through a nitrocellulose membrane (Whatman, pore size 0.2 mm) equilibrated

Were filtered through a nitrocellulose membrane (Whatman, pore size 0.2 mm) equilibrated

Were filtered through a nitrocellulose membrane (Whatman, pore size 0.2 mm) equilibrated with 0.1 SDS in TBS (25 mM Tris, 140 mM NaCl, pH 7.5) and afterwards washed in TBS+0.05 Tween-20. The membrane was probed with mouse anti-HA antibody (Covance,Figure 3. Computational analysis of modifiers of polyQinduced toxicity. (A) Meta-interaction network displaying modifiers of polyQ toxicity. Only candidates causing a robust modification of the REP (red) as well as directly interacting subtle modifiers (black) were retained from an initial network of more than 5 k genes with 20 k interactions [32]. One local cluster of functionally interacting modifiers is highlighted. (B) Gene Ontology analysis of these candidate gene groups. Shown are -log10(p-value) scores for GO term enrichment for candidate gene groups (horizontal axis, see inset for group identities)Modifiers of Polyglutamine ToxicityFigure 4. Overlap between screens for genetic modifiers of polyQ-induced toxicity or aggregation. The Venn-like diagram displays only candidate genes shared by the different screens. Mode of modification (enhancement/suppression) is not addressed, due to the different readouts (aggregation/toxicity), model systems (Drosophila, insect cells, C. elegans) and elongated polyQ-containing proteins used in the diverse screening approaches. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047452.g1:1,000) and secondary HRP-coupled antibody (GE Healthcare, 1:10,000). ECL solution was used for visualization. SC 1 custom synthesis Oltipraz web Independent homogenates (if available) were used for repetitions. In case of none or only one independent repetition n#2 is indicated. In all other cases, number of independent repetitions is n 3. In addition, regular Western blots of head lysates were probed with Syntaxin antibody (DSHB 8C3 1:2,500) to control for equal protein loading. Statistics: Variation within the data set was tested independently for suppressors and enhancers with ANOVA. If variation was significant, Bonferroni post-hoc test was applied (GraphPad Prism 5). Computational analyses were performed primarily with custom-written Perl scripts. The network graph on the basis of the meta-interaction network [32] was generated using Cytoscape v2.8 [54]. Gene Ontology over-representation statistics were calculated using the command line version of Ontologizer v2.0 [55], using the set of tested RNAi lines as background population. The resulting matrix of candidate gene groups and Gene Ontology terms was clustered and displayed using Genesis v1.76 [56].normalization purposes. Transformant IDs of selected suppressors and enhancers of polyQ-induced REPs are indicated. (TIF)Figure S2 Gene Ontology analysis of candidate gene groups. Shown are 2log10(p-value) scores for GO term enrichment for each non-redundant combination of candidate gene groups (horizontal axis) and GO term (vertical). The analysis incorporated all possible combinations of subtle, strong and lethal candidate groups. The range of phenotypes was categorized: 1 full, 2 robust and 3 subtle suppression of REP, 5 subtle and 6 robust enhancement of REP, 7 indicating lethality. The upper matrix is based on simple term by term comparison for GO term enrichment with a Benjamini/Hochberg-corrected p-value,0.15. While the first approach yielded vastly redundant terms of primarily nuclear processes, the latter approach (Topology Weighted-annotation considering the tree hierarchy of the ontology, lower matrix) uncovered potential molecular functions as distinct as splicin.Were filtered through a nitrocellulose membrane (Whatman, pore size 0.2 mm) equilibrated with 0.1 SDS in TBS (25 mM Tris, 140 mM NaCl, pH 7.5) and afterwards washed in TBS+0.05 Tween-20. The membrane was probed with mouse anti-HA antibody (Covance,Figure 3. Computational analysis of modifiers of polyQinduced toxicity. (A) Meta-interaction network displaying modifiers of polyQ toxicity. Only candidates causing a robust modification of the REP (red) as well as directly interacting subtle modifiers (black) were retained from an initial network of more than 5 k genes with 20 k interactions [32]. One local cluster of functionally interacting modifiers is highlighted. (B) Gene Ontology analysis of these candidate gene groups. Shown are -log10(p-value) scores for GO term enrichment for candidate gene groups (horizontal axis, see inset for group identities)Modifiers of Polyglutamine ToxicityFigure 4. Overlap between screens for genetic modifiers of polyQ-induced toxicity or aggregation. The Venn-like diagram displays only candidate genes shared by the different screens. Mode of modification (enhancement/suppression) is not addressed, due to the different readouts (aggregation/toxicity), model systems (Drosophila, insect cells, C. elegans) and elongated polyQ-containing proteins used in the diverse screening approaches. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047452.g1:1,000) and secondary HRP-coupled antibody (GE Healthcare, 1:10,000). ECL solution was used for visualization. Independent homogenates (if available) were used for repetitions. In case of none or only one independent repetition n#2 is indicated. In all other cases, number of independent repetitions is n 3. In addition, regular Western blots of head lysates were probed with Syntaxin antibody (DSHB 8C3 1:2,500) to control for equal protein loading. Statistics: Variation within the data set was tested independently for suppressors and enhancers with ANOVA. If variation was significant, Bonferroni post-hoc test was applied (GraphPad Prism 5). Computational analyses were performed primarily with custom-written Perl scripts. The network graph on the basis of the meta-interaction network [32] was generated using Cytoscape v2.8 [54]. Gene Ontology over-representation statistics were calculated using the command line version of Ontologizer v2.0 [55], using the set of tested RNAi lines as background population. The resulting matrix of candidate gene groups and Gene Ontology terms was clustered and displayed using Genesis v1.76 [56].normalization purposes. Transformant IDs of selected suppressors and enhancers of polyQ-induced REPs are indicated. (TIF)Figure S2 Gene Ontology analysis of candidate gene groups. Shown are 2log10(p-value) scores for GO term enrichment for each non-redundant combination of candidate gene groups (horizontal axis) and GO term (vertical). The analysis incorporated all possible combinations of subtle, strong and lethal candidate groups. The range of phenotypes was categorized: 1 full, 2 robust and 3 subtle suppression of REP, 5 subtle and 6 robust enhancement of REP, 7 indicating lethality. The upper matrix is based on simple term by term comparison for GO term enrichment with a Benjamini/Hochberg-corrected p-value,0.15. While the first approach yielded vastly redundant terms of primarily nuclear processes, the latter approach (Topology Weighted-annotation considering the tree hierarchy of the ontology, lower matrix) uncovered potential molecular functions as distinct as splicin.

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