Ed genes between pathological placentas and controls, we conducted a NimbleGen

Ed genes between pathological placentas and controls, we conducted a NimbleGen gene expression microarray analysis. Applying Student t-test (p,0.05) and a fold change criterion (.1.5 fold change in gene expression in pathological and control placentas) produced a set of 1312 genes with differential expression (Figure 1a). Among them, 387 probes (including 251 genes, 137 genes with up-regulation and 114 genes with down-regulation in preecclamptic placentas) had fold change differences greater than 2. Altogether, these genes included showed significant enrichment based on the gene ontology analysis (Figure 1b) such as regulation of cell growth, immune system and cell adhesion. Consistent with our expectations, among the differentially expressed genes, there is a remarkable concordance of genes between our findings and other reported studies although we used different clinical samples and platforms, such as FLT1 [5,31], JAG1 [32] and ENG [33]. We have listed the overlapped genes of our microarray data in supplementary material Table S2.Plasmids CpG Methylation10 mg of LEP- pGL3 plasmids were in vitro methylated using 40 units of the CpG DNA methylase M.SssI (New England Biolabs) incubated for 4 hours. The reaction was terminated by heating (65uC, 20 min). Methylated plasmids were purified by the DNA Clean Concentrator Kit (Zymo Reseach). The efficiency of the methylation was examined by a BglII/HindIII digestion of the methylated LEP- pGL3 plasmids. The completeness of methylation was proven by the inhibition of BglII/HindIII digestion.Transient Transfection of Cells and Luciferase Reporter Assay24 hours prior to transfection, JEG-3 and HEK293 cells were seeded into 24-well plates containing media without antibiotics at a concentration sufficient to give 80 confluence. Transient transfection was carried out using Lipofectamine 2000 (Life Homatropine methobromide Technologies), and pRL-CMV vector was used to correct for transfection efficiency. For each well, 0.8 mg of LEP-pGL3 or LEP (methy)-pGL3 basic construct, 40 ng of pRL-CMV vector, and an optional 0.8 mg of CEBPa expression vector were diluted in 50 ml of Opti-MEM medium (Life Technologies); and 0.8 ml of Lipofectamine 2000 were diluted in 50 ml of Opti-MEM medium and incubated for 5 minutes at room temperature. After the combination of the diluted DNA and Lipofectamine 2000, the Emixustat (hydrochloride) site complexes were incubated for 20 min at room temperature to allow complex formation. The culture medium was replaced by 400 ml of Opti-MEM, and 15755315 the plasmid-Lipo2000-OptiMEM complexes were added to the cells. Following 5 h of incubation at 37uC, 500 ml of medium containing 10 (v/v) fetal bovineValidation of the Differentially Expressed Genes: LEP and SH3PXD2ATo validate the results by NimbleGen gene expression microarray, qRT-PCR was carried out in additional 7 placentas from pregnancies with PE and in 6 placentas from healthy pregnancies. We chose the gene with the greatest expression difference (LEP, with the fold change = 18.832) and the gene with the most significant p value (SH3PXD2A, with p value = 1.4161025). The results here showed that the expression of LEP was significantly elevated in preeclamptic placentas, with 27.94-fold increase, compared with that in normal placentas (Figure 2a, p = 0.003). As for SH3PXD2A, it is consistent with our expectation that the expression increased in placentas from pregnancies with PE 2.53-fold compared with that in normal placentas (Figure 2b, p = 0.024).Upregulation and Hypomethylation.Ed genes between pathological placentas and controls, we conducted a NimbleGen gene expression microarray analysis. Applying Student t-test (p,0.05) and a fold change criterion (.1.5 fold change in gene expression in pathological and control placentas) produced a set of 1312 genes with differential expression (Figure 1a). Among them, 387 probes (including 251 genes, 137 genes with up-regulation and 114 genes with down-regulation in preecclamptic placentas) had fold change differences greater than 2. Altogether, these genes included showed significant enrichment based on the gene ontology analysis (Figure 1b) such as regulation of cell growth, immune system and cell adhesion. Consistent with our expectations, among the differentially expressed genes, there is a remarkable concordance of genes between our findings and other reported studies although we used different clinical samples and platforms, such as FLT1 [5,31], JAG1 [32] and ENG [33]. We have listed the overlapped genes of our microarray data in supplementary material Table S2.Plasmids CpG Methylation10 mg of LEP- pGL3 plasmids were in vitro methylated using 40 units of the CpG DNA methylase M.SssI (New England Biolabs) incubated for 4 hours. The reaction was terminated by heating (65uC, 20 min). Methylated plasmids were purified by the DNA Clean Concentrator Kit (Zymo Reseach). The efficiency of the methylation was examined by a BglII/HindIII digestion of the methylated LEP- pGL3 plasmids. The completeness of methylation was proven by the inhibition of BglII/HindIII digestion.Transient Transfection of Cells and Luciferase Reporter Assay24 hours prior to transfection, JEG-3 and HEK293 cells were seeded into 24-well plates containing media without antibiotics at a concentration sufficient to give 80 confluence. Transient transfection was carried out using Lipofectamine 2000 (Life Technologies), and pRL-CMV vector was used to correct for transfection efficiency. For each well, 0.8 mg of LEP-pGL3 or LEP (methy)-pGL3 basic construct, 40 ng of pRL-CMV vector, and an optional 0.8 mg of CEBPa expression vector were diluted in 50 ml of Opti-MEM medium (Life Technologies); and 0.8 ml of Lipofectamine 2000 were diluted in 50 ml of Opti-MEM medium and incubated for 5 minutes at room temperature. After the combination of the diluted DNA and Lipofectamine 2000, the complexes were incubated for 20 min at room temperature to allow complex formation. The culture medium was replaced by 400 ml of Opti-MEM, and 15755315 the plasmid-Lipo2000-OptiMEM complexes were added to the cells. Following 5 h of incubation at 37uC, 500 ml of medium containing 10 (v/v) fetal bovineValidation of the Differentially Expressed Genes: LEP and SH3PXD2ATo validate the results by NimbleGen gene expression microarray, qRT-PCR was carried out in additional 7 placentas from pregnancies with PE and in 6 placentas from healthy pregnancies. We chose the gene with the greatest expression difference (LEP, with the fold change = 18.832) and the gene with the most significant p value (SH3PXD2A, with p value = 1.4161025). The results here showed that the expression of LEP was significantly elevated in preeclamptic placentas, with 27.94-fold increase, compared with that in normal placentas (Figure 2a, p = 0.003). As for SH3PXD2A, it is consistent with our expectation that the expression increased in placentas from pregnancies with PE 2.53-fold compared with that in normal placentas (Figure 2b, p = 0.024).Upregulation and Hypomethylation.

Leave a Reply