Y effect of previous social experience can be excluded [36]. All crayfish

Y effect of previous social experience can be excluded [36]. All crayfish were used only once to avoid pseudo-replication.Figure 1. RP-HPLC profile of the crude extract of sinus glands. Mobile Phase A: 0.1 TFA in water. Mobile Phase B: 0.1 TFA in acetonitrile. Gradient: 0?00 B over 60 min at 1 mL min21. Column: Zorbax SB-C18 4.6 6 150 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050047.gAggression in Decapods Modulated by cHHFigure 2. Horizontal time sequence of experimental design. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050047.gPhase 2: Familiarization (T0). The two opponents were kept in an experimental aquarium (a circular opaque PVC container, diameter: 30 cm) separated by an opaque PVC divider for 10-min acclimatization. The familiarization started with the removal of the divider and lasted 20 min (T0), during which time crayfish LED 209 site behaviour was recorded by a digital camera (Samsung VP-L800) for subsequent blind analysis (see below). Simultaneously, an experienced observer (LA) recorded the get Rubusoside winner of each fight so that, at the end of familiarization, we could determine the dominant lpha crayfish (and consequently the subordinate eta crayfish) for each pair, that is, the winner (and the loser) of more than 60 of the total fights [40]. The `winner’ was defined as the crayfish that did not retreat or that retreated after the opponent showed a motionless posture, which is typical of a subordinate [4]. Trials where dominance was not clearly established were excluded from the analysis. A total of 26 (out of 30) size-matched pairs were observed and alpha and beta crayfish were assessed. Phase 3: Experimental treatments. The above selected pairs were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: (1) `control pairs’ (CP, n = 8): both males were injected with 100 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS); (2) `reinforced pairs’ (RP, n = 9): the alpha was injected with 100 mL of native cHH solution, and the beta with 100 mL of PBS; (3) `inverted pairs’ (IP, n = 9): the opposite of the previous treatment. To obtain cHH solutions, lyophilised native cHH was diluted with PBS to a final concentration of 5 mg mL21, using 100 mL of such solution per individual, corresponding to 0.5 mg of cHH. The amount of the cHH injected into each crayfish was set from the results of a preliminary experiment showing that the injection of 0.5 mg of cHH determined a significant increase of the glycemic level in the hemolymph. Injections were made through the dorsal abdo-cephalothoracic membrane into the pericardial sinus using a 25 gauge 6 5/89 needle fitted to a 1 mL syringe. Treated crayfish were left isolated and undisturbed for 30 min. Differently from serotonin and octopamine [13] [19], crayfish did not exhibit any rigid posture immediately after cHH injections. Phase 4: Fighting bouts after injections (T1, T2, T3). The original pairs were reconstituted and observed(1) The number and total duration (in s) of fights. A fight began when one opponent approached the other and ended when one of the two individuals ran away, backed off or tail flipped away from the other for at least 10 s at a distance longer than one body length [41]. Tail flipping away is the typical backward swimming response of crayfish. From these parameters we computed the mean duration of fight (in s); (2) Percentage of dominance ( ). The number of fights won by an individual as a percentage over the total fights battled. The winner was the individual that did not retreat or that retreated after the opponent had.Y effect of previous social experience can be excluded [36]. All crayfish were used only once to avoid pseudo-replication.Figure 1. RP-HPLC profile of the crude extract of sinus glands. Mobile Phase A: 0.1 TFA in water. Mobile Phase B: 0.1 TFA in acetonitrile. Gradient: 0?00 B over 60 min at 1 mL min21. Column: Zorbax SB-C18 4.6 6 150 mm. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050047.gAggression in Decapods Modulated by cHHFigure 2. Horizontal time sequence of experimental design. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050047.gPhase 2: Familiarization (T0). The two opponents were kept in an experimental aquarium (a circular opaque PVC container, diameter: 30 cm) separated by an opaque PVC divider for 10-min acclimatization. The familiarization started with the removal of the divider and lasted 20 min (T0), during which time crayfish behaviour was recorded by a digital camera (Samsung VP-L800) for subsequent blind analysis (see below). Simultaneously, an experienced observer (LA) recorded the winner of each fight so that, at the end of familiarization, we could determine the dominant lpha crayfish (and consequently the subordinate eta crayfish) for each pair, that is, the winner (and the loser) of more than 60 of the total fights [40]. The `winner’ was defined as the crayfish that did not retreat or that retreated after the opponent showed a motionless posture, which is typical of a subordinate [4]. Trials where dominance was not clearly established were excluded from the analysis. A total of 26 (out of 30) size-matched pairs were observed and alpha and beta crayfish were assessed. Phase 3: Experimental treatments. The above selected pairs were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: (1) `control pairs’ (CP, n = 8): both males were injected with 100 mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS); (2) `reinforced pairs’ (RP, n = 9): the alpha was injected with 100 mL of native cHH solution, and the beta with 100 mL of PBS; (3) `inverted pairs’ (IP, n = 9): the opposite of the previous treatment. To obtain cHH solutions, lyophilised native cHH was diluted with PBS to a final concentration of 5 mg mL21, using 100 mL of such solution per individual, corresponding to 0.5 mg of cHH. The amount of the cHH injected into each crayfish was set from the results of a preliminary experiment showing that the injection of 0.5 mg of cHH determined a significant increase of the glycemic level in the hemolymph. Injections were made through the dorsal abdo-cephalothoracic membrane into the pericardial sinus using a 25 gauge 6 5/89 needle fitted to a 1 mL syringe. Treated crayfish were left isolated and undisturbed for 30 min. Differently from serotonin and octopamine [13] [19], crayfish did not exhibit any rigid posture immediately after cHH injections. Phase 4: Fighting bouts after injections (T1, T2, T3). The original pairs were reconstituted and observed(1) The number and total duration (in s) of fights. A fight began when one opponent approached the other and ended when one of the two individuals ran away, backed off or tail flipped away from the other for at least 10 s at a distance longer than one body length [41]. Tail flipping away is the typical backward swimming response of crayfish. From these parameters we computed the mean duration of fight (in s); (2) Percentage of dominance ( ). The number of fights won by an individual as a percentage over the total fights battled. The winner was the individual that did not retreat or that retreated after the opponent had.

Leave a Reply