Ase biomarker and mediator, in patients with dry eye disease and

Ase biomarker and mediator, in patients with dry eye disease and in EDE [29,30]. However, it is not yet known if one or more of these tear and corneal epithelial changes associated with dry eye disease or EDE predispose the cornea to infection. Several of our previous studies using P. aeruginosa have highlighted the importance of tear fluid in protecting the cornea from infection. These include direct effects of tear fluid on bacteria, preventing invasion, cytotoxicity and epithelial traversal [31,32], and indirect effects of tears by induction of corneal epithelial antimicrobial and immunomodulatory factors, e.g. RNase7 and ST-2 [33]. Our other previous studies have also shown the importance of surfactant protein-D, found in tear fluid and the corneal epithelium, in helping the ocular surface defend against P. aeruginosa and its pathogenic mechanisms [34?6]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that EDE would alter corneal susceptibility to P. aeruginosa colonization and infection in vivo. Our results showed that the murine cornea retained its resistance to P. aeruginosa infection under EDE conditions, and part of that resistance was associated with the increased expression of SP-D.Otein. For the PAP4 serum that did not produce significant matches experiment, tissue samples were collected from euthanized animals.Fluorescein StainingThe corneas of anesthetized mice were topically infused with 16985061 3 mL of a sterile sodium fluorescein suspension (100 mL PBS rinse of a Fluoret stick; Chavvin, Aubenas, FR) for 3 min. Excess fluorescein was removed by washing with 1 mL of PBS. Corneal staining was observed under 206 magnification with a dissecting stereomicroscope (Zeiss, Jena, Germany) equipped with a blue light illumination, and documented with a AxioCam MR (Zeiss, Jena, Germany).Bacterial Title Loaded From File inoculation and quantificationP. aeruginosa strain PAO1 (serogroup O5) was used for this study. PAO1 is able to invade corneal epithelial cells and is virulent in a scarified murine cornea [38]. Bacteria were grown on Trypticase soy agar (TSA) at 37uC for 16 h and then resuspended in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to a concentration of 1011 cfu/ mL. Bacterial concentrations were confirmed by quantitative plating on TSA for viable counts. Following 5 or 10 day course of EDE induction or control treatments, ocular surfaces of anesthetized mice were inoculated topically with 5 mL containing 109 cfu bacteria without introducing mechanical injury. Mice were maintained under sedation for the initial phase of the challenge ,3 h. At various times after inoculation, viable bacteria in tear fluids or corneal tissues were assessed using quantitative plating on TSA [36].Ocular Surface Washes, Corneal Homogenates and Determination of Ocular PathologyMurine tear fluids were harvested by washing the ocular surface of anesthetized mice with 5 mL of sterile PBS and collecting the washes with sterile, glass microcapilliary tubes (10 mL; Drummond Scientific Inc, Broomall, PA) placed in the lateral canthus. These ocular surface washes (2 mL) were serially diluted and plated for viable bacteria. To prepare corneal homogenates, eyes were collected from euthanized animals, corneal tissues were harvested ex situ and washed extensively with PBS (10 mL). The corneas were homogenized in 100 mL PBS containing 0.25 Triton X100 with sterile Kontes microtube pellet pestle (Daigger, Vernon Hills, IL) and sampled for viable bacteria. Corneal pathology was assessed at various times pre- and post-inoculation, and documented with a digital CCD camera (Opt.Ase biomarker and mediator, in patients with dry eye disease and in EDE [29,30]. However, it is not yet known if one or more of these tear and corneal epithelial changes associated with dry eye disease or EDE predispose the cornea to infection. Several of our previous studies using P. aeruginosa have highlighted the importance of tear fluid in protecting the cornea from infection. These include direct effects of tear fluid on bacteria, preventing invasion, cytotoxicity and epithelial traversal [31,32], and indirect effects of tears by induction of corneal epithelial antimicrobial and immunomodulatory factors, e.g. RNase7 and ST-2 [33]. Our other previous studies have also shown the importance of surfactant protein-D, found in tear fluid and the corneal epithelium, in helping the ocular surface defend against P. aeruginosa and its pathogenic mechanisms [34?6]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that EDE would alter corneal susceptibility to P. aeruginosa colonization and infection in vivo. Our results showed that the murine cornea retained its resistance to P. aeruginosa infection under EDE conditions, and part of that resistance was associated with the increased expression of SP-D.experiment, tissue samples were collected from euthanized animals.Fluorescein StainingThe corneas of anesthetized mice were topically infused with 16985061 3 mL of a sterile sodium fluorescein suspension (100 mL PBS rinse of a Fluoret stick; Chavvin, Aubenas, FR) for 3 min. Excess fluorescein was removed by washing with 1 mL of PBS. Corneal staining was observed under 206 magnification with a dissecting stereomicroscope (Zeiss, Jena, Germany) equipped with a blue light illumination, and documented with a AxioCam MR (Zeiss, Jena, Germany).Bacterial inoculation and quantificationP. aeruginosa strain PAO1 (serogroup O5) was used for this study. PAO1 is able to invade corneal epithelial cells and is virulent in a scarified murine cornea [38]. Bacteria were grown on Trypticase soy agar (TSA) at 37uC for 16 h and then resuspended in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) to a concentration of 1011 cfu/ mL. Bacterial concentrations were confirmed by quantitative plating on TSA for viable counts. Following 5 or 10 day course of EDE induction or control treatments, ocular surfaces of anesthetized mice were inoculated topically with 5 mL containing 109 cfu bacteria without introducing mechanical injury. Mice were maintained under sedation for the initial phase of the challenge ,3 h. At various times after inoculation, viable bacteria in tear fluids or corneal tissues were assessed using quantitative plating on TSA [36].Ocular Surface Washes, Corneal Homogenates and Determination of Ocular PathologyMurine tear fluids were harvested by washing the ocular surface of anesthetized mice with 5 mL of sterile PBS and collecting the washes with sterile, glass microcapilliary tubes (10 mL; Drummond Scientific Inc, Broomall, PA) placed in the lateral canthus. These ocular surface washes (2 mL) were serially diluted and plated for viable bacteria. To prepare corneal homogenates, eyes were collected from euthanized animals, corneal tissues were harvested ex situ and washed extensively with PBS (10 mL). The corneas were homogenized in 100 mL PBS containing 0.25 Triton X100 with sterile Kontes microtube pellet pestle (Daigger, Vernon Hills, IL) and sampled for viable bacteria. Corneal pathology was assessed at various times pre- and post-inoculation, and documented with a digital CCD camera (Opt.

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