Otechnology), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1, 1: 2000, BD Biosciences, Sparks, MD), Protein

Otechnology), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1, 1: 2000, BD Biosciences, Sparks, MD), Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, 1: 1000, BD Biosciences), nuclear factor-erythroid 2related factor 2 (Nrf2, 1: 1000, Abcam, Cambridge, MA). Other primary antibodies, including tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a, 1:500), total- and phospho-Akt (Ser473, 1:500), total and phosphor-GSK-3b (1:500), total- and phosphor-tensin homolog (PTEN, 1: 500), cleaved caspase-12 (1:1000), Fyn (1:1000), Bax and Bcl-2 (1: 1000) were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, MA).determine if difference exists. If so, a post hoc Turkey’s test was used for analysis for the difference between groups, with Origin 7.5 laboratory data analysis and graphing software. Statistical significance was considered as p,0.05.Results Effect of TPEN and diabetes on NT 157 web hepatic Zn levelsHyperglycemic and age-matched control mice were treated with and without TPEN for four months. Diabetes 22948146 or TPEN treatment for 4 months mildly reduced hepatic Zn level (P,0.05, Fig. 1). TPEN treatment further decreased diabetic reduction of hepatic Zn level (Fig. 1), suggesting the induction of hepatic Zn deficiency in Diabetes and Diabetes/TPEN groups.Effects of Zn deficiency on diabetes-induced hepatic damage and steatosisAs one of measurements for hepatic damage, serum ALT level was not changed in TPEN-treated non-diabetic group, but significantly increased in diabetic group, which was further enhanced by TPEN treatment 25837696 in diabetic mice (Fig. 2A). Liver pathology with H E staining is presented in Fig. 2B. The hepatic cell structure in control group was normal and clear without inflammation and necrosis. In TPEN treatment group, a few inflammatory cells were observed with the same cell structure as those seen in control group. However, diabetes increased hepatic damage with obviously necrotic and/or inflammatory foci. In the liver of Diabetes/TPEN group, the morphological change was more severe with more inflammatory and/or necrotic foci as compared to the liver of Diabetes group. Examination of hepatic lipid accumulation status with Oil red O staining revealed that no lipid accumulation was observed in control or TPEN treatment group; however, significant lipid accumulation was observed in Diabetes group, which was further increased in Diabetes/TPEN group (Fig. 2C). TG measurement with ELISA showed the significant increase of hepatic TG levels in Diabetes/TPEN compared to Diabetes or TPEN alone (Fig. 2D).Triglyceride (TG) measurementLiver tissues were homogenized in 16 PBS. Lipids were extracted with methanol: chloroform (1:2), dried in an evaporating centrifuge, and resuspended in 1 Triton X-100. Colorimetric assessment of hepatic TG levels was carried out using Thermo scientific TG assay reagents (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.). Values were normalized to the protein concentration in homogenate before extraction, determined by the Bradford assay (BioRad Laboratories, Hercules, CA).Effects of Zn deficiency on diabetes-induced hepatic apoptotic cell deathBy examination of hepatic apoptosis with TUNEL staining, an increase of TUNEL positive cells was mildly and significantly evident in the liver of TPEN and Diabetes groups, respectively. Diabetes/TPEN group showed a synergistic outcome in respect to the apoptotic effect (Fig. 3A).Cell culture and treatmentsHuman hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HepG2) line was maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Hypericin site Eagle’s medium (DMEM)/ F12 supplemented with.Otechnology), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1, 1: 2000, BD Biosciences, Sparks, MD), Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, 1: 1000, BD Biosciences), nuclear factor-erythroid 2related factor 2 (Nrf2, 1: 1000, Abcam, Cambridge, MA). Other primary antibodies, including tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a, 1:500), total- and phospho-Akt (Ser473, 1:500), total and phosphor-GSK-3b (1:500), total- and phosphor-tensin homolog (PTEN, 1: 500), cleaved caspase-12 (1:1000), Fyn (1:1000), Bax and Bcl-2 (1: 1000) were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, MA).determine if difference exists. If so, a post hoc Turkey’s test was used for analysis for the difference between groups, with Origin 7.5 laboratory data analysis and graphing software. Statistical significance was considered as p,0.05.Results Effect of TPEN and diabetes on hepatic Zn levelsHyperglycemic and age-matched control mice were treated with and without TPEN for four months. Diabetes 22948146 or TPEN treatment for 4 months mildly reduced hepatic Zn level (P,0.05, Fig. 1). TPEN treatment further decreased diabetic reduction of hepatic Zn level (Fig. 1), suggesting the induction of hepatic Zn deficiency in Diabetes and Diabetes/TPEN groups.Effects of Zn deficiency on diabetes-induced hepatic damage and steatosisAs one of measurements for hepatic damage, serum ALT level was not changed in TPEN-treated non-diabetic group, but significantly increased in diabetic group, which was further enhanced by TPEN treatment 25837696 in diabetic mice (Fig. 2A). Liver pathology with H E staining is presented in Fig. 2B. The hepatic cell structure in control group was normal and clear without inflammation and necrosis. In TPEN treatment group, a few inflammatory cells were observed with the same cell structure as those seen in control group. However, diabetes increased hepatic damage with obviously necrotic and/or inflammatory foci. In the liver of Diabetes/TPEN group, the morphological change was more severe with more inflammatory and/or necrotic foci as compared to the liver of Diabetes group. Examination of hepatic lipid accumulation status with Oil red O staining revealed that no lipid accumulation was observed in control or TPEN treatment group; however, significant lipid accumulation was observed in Diabetes group, which was further increased in Diabetes/TPEN group (Fig. 2C). TG measurement with ELISA showed the significant increase of hepatic TG levels in Diabetes/TPEN compared to Diabetes or TPEN alone (Fig. 2D).Triglyceride (TG) measurementLiver tissues were homogenized in 16 PBS. Lipids were extracted with methanol: chloroform (1:2), dried in an evaporating centrifuge, and resuspended in 1 Triton X-100. Colorimetric assessment of hepatic TG levels was carried out using Thermo scientific TG assay reagents (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.). Values were normalized to the protein concentration in homogenate before extraction, determined by the Bradford assay (BioRad Laboratories, Hercules, CA).Effects of Zn deficiency on diabetes-induced hepatic apoptotic cell deathBy examination of hepatic apoptosis with TUNEL staining, an increase of TUNEL positive cells was mildly and significantly evident in the liver of TPEN and Diabetes groups, respectively. Diabetes/TPEN group showed a synergistic outcome in respect to the apoptotic effect (Fig. 3A).Cell culture and treatmentsHuman hepatocellular carcinoma cell (HepG2) line was maintained in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM)/ F12 supplemented with.

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