Ranial infrared laser treatment within 24 hours of stroke or sham placebo

Ranial infrared laser treatment within 24 hours of stroke or sham placebo treatment. Seventy percent of treated patients had successful outcomes (measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and defined as complete recovery at day 90 or a decrease in NIHSS score by at least 9 points), compared to 51 of controls [1]. In a follow-up 2009 study, NEST-2, of 660 patients with acute ischemic stroke, 36.3 of patients treated with transcranial near infrared laser technology within 24 hours 1676428 had a favorable outcome (defined by a 90 day score of 0? on the modified Rankin Scale), as compared to 30.9 [13]. CI 1011 Although this finding was not statistically significant, it does suggest a favorable outcome with the treatment [13]. There was no difference in mortality or serious adverse effects between the treated and untreated groups [13].Red 22948146 and Near Infrared Light TransmissionFigure 2. Percent Penetrance of Light through Coronal Sections of Cadaver Skull, Bone Only. Near infrared light measurably penetrates cadaver skull, as compared to red light. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047460.gA Systemic Mechanism of Action via Blood Irradiation?In terms of mechanism of action, a systemic 1113-59-3 chemical information effect may be responsible for some of the therapeutic value of infrared light. Interestingly, the growth promoting activity of the entire circulating blood is enhanced by local infrared irradiation [14,15]. Blood from human volunteers whose sacral skin had been irradiated with visible and infrared polarized light was found to increase proliferation of in vitro keratinocytes [14]. Similar results were obtained with blood that was irradiated in vitro [14]. The authors hypothesized that transcutaneous photomodification of a small amount of blood in superficial skin vessels may lead to rapid rise of the growth promoting activity of the entire circulated blood, possibly via release of growth factors from blood cells [15]. One factor that may be released is nitric oxide (NO). Nearinfrared light irradiation has been shown to increase nitric oxide production in cultured rat and mouse cardiomyocytes, and protect them from injury at the onset of reoxygenation following hypoxia [16]. NO has a number of effects on cells, including a role in apoptotic pathways, and may promote or antagonize apoptosis depending on its concentration and the cellular redox state [16].Aims of this StudyDespite prior research that has shown beneficial effects in treating stroke patients with infrared irradiation, limited data exists that demonstrates the ability of infrared light to pass through the soft tissue and bone of the skull. In fact, in dermatology textbooks, 600?064 nm wavelength light is commonly depicted as penetrating no further than the dermis [17]. As dermatologists aware of the potential dermatologic uses for near-infrared light, we were intrigued by the findings of NEST-1 and NEST-2, and debated whether the findings were due to direct or indirect effects of the light. Taking into account the dermatologic benefits that have been seen with infrared light, and the finding that local skin irradiation leads to change in the circulating blood, we theorized that perhaps some of the beneficial effects seen in stroke patients are indirect, secondary to dermatologic or hematologic modulation. To investigate this idea, we measured the passage of infrared light through cadaver skull bones, sectioned cadaver skulls with intact soft tissue, in vivo human cheek, and in vivo human hand. For c.Ranial infrared laser treatment within 24 hours of stroke or sham placebo treatment. Seventy percent of treated patients had successful outcomes (measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and defined as complete recovery at day 90 or a decrease in NIHSS score by at least 9 points), compared to 51 of controls [1]. In a follow-up 2009 study, NEST-2, of 660 patients with acute ischemic stroke, 36.3 of patients treated with transcranial near infrared laser technology within 24 hours 1676428 had a favorable outcome (defined by a 90 day score of 0? on the modified Rankin Scale), as compared to 30.9 [13]. Although this finding was not statistically significant, it does suggest a favorable outcome with the treatment [13]. There was no difference in mortality or serious adverse effects between the treated and untreated groups [13].Red 22948146 and Near Infrared Light TransmissionFigure 2. Percent Penetrance of Light through Coronal Sections of Cadaver Skull, Bone Only. Near infrared light measurably penetrates cadaver skull, as compared to red light. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047460.gA Systemic Mechanism of Action via Blood Irradiation?In terms of mechanism of action, a systemic effect may be responsible for some of the therapeutic value of infrared light. Interestingly, the growth promoting activity of the entire circulating blood is enhanced by local infrared irradiation [14,15]. Blood from human volunteers whose sacral skin had been irradiated with visible and infrared polarized light was found to increase proliferation of in vitro keratinocytes [14]. Similar results were obtained with blood that was irradiated in vitro [14]. The authors hypothesized that transcutaneous photomodification of a small amount of blood in superficial skin vessels may lead to rapid rise of the growth promoting activity of the entire circulated blood, possibly via release of growth factors from blood cells [15]. One factor that may be released is nitric oxide (NO). Nearinfrared light irradiation has been shown to increase nitric oxide production in cultured rat and mouse cardiomyocytes, and protect them from injury at the onset of reoxygenation following hypoxia [16]. NO has a number of effects on cells, including a role in apoptotic pathways, and may promote or antagonize apoptosis depending on its concentration and the cellular redox state [16].Aims of this StudyDespite prior research that has shown beneficial effects in treating stroke patients with infrared irradiation, limited data exists that demonstrates the ability of infrared light to pass through the soft tissue and bone of the skull. In fact, in dermatology textbooks, 600?064 nm wavelength light is commonly depicted as penetrating no further than the dermis [17]. As dermatologists aware of the potential dermatologic uses for near-infrared light, we were intrigued by the findings of NEST-1 and NEST-2, and debated whether the findings were due to direct or indirect effects of the light. Taking into account the dermatologic benefits that have been seen with infrared light, and the finding that local skin irradiation leads to change in the circulating blood, we theorized that perhaps some of the beneficial effects seen in stroke patients are indirect, secondary to dermatologic or hematologic modulation. To investigate this idea, we measured the passage of infrared light through cadaver skull bones, sectioned cadaver skulls with intact soft tissue, in vivo human cheek, and in vivo human hand. For c.

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