R’s instructions. Each recombinant adenovirus was selected after three rounds

R’s instructions. Each recombinant adenovirus was selected after three rounds of plaque purification in HEK293 cells and was separately identified by PCR. The final purification of the virus was performed by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation.Cell Lines and Cell CultureHEK293 (human embryonic kidney cell line) cells, A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma line), Colo-320(human colon cancer cell line), and MCF-7(human breast cancer cell line) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Rockville, MD, USA). HeLa (human cervical carcinoma cell line), SW620, HT29 and HCT116 (human colorectal cancer cell lines), WI38 (human normal fetal lung fibroblast cell line), and QSG-7701 (human normal liver cell line) cells were purchased from the Cell Bank at the Type Culture Collection of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Shanghai, China). SW620 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM, GIBCO BRL, Grand Island, NY) that was supplemented with 5 fetal bovine serum (FBS), 4 mM glutamine, penicillin (100 U/mL), and streptomycin (100 mg/mL). 15481974 All of the other cell lines were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10 FBS. All of the cell cultures were maintained at 37uC with 5 CO2 in a humidified incubator. Cells in a logarithmic growth phase were used for the experiments.Western Blot AnalysisTo further explore the molecular mechanisms responsible for the cell death induced by the recombinant adenovirus, Western blot analyses were performed. SW620 and HCT116 cells were seeded into 6-well plates at a density of 56105 per well and cultured overnight, and they were then treated with or without the virus for 48 h. Both adherent and floating cells were harvested in lysis buffer [62.5 mM Tris-HCl (pH 6.8), 2 sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 10 mM glycerol, and 1.55 dithiothreitol]. Protein concentrations were determined using a Bicinchoninic Acid (BCA) protein assay kit (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, USA). Equal amounts of proteins were separated by 12 SDS-PAGE and were then transferred to nitrocellulose (NC) membranes. The membranes were blocked with 5 skim milk and then incubated with primary antibodies and the appropriate secondary fluorescent antibodies. Immunodetection was NT-157 site visualized using an Odyssey infrared imaging system (LICOR Biosciences Inc, America).Materials and Methods Plasmids, Virus and ReagentsThe pMD18-T vector was purchased from TaKaRa, Ltd., and the pBHGE3 plasmid was purchased from Microbix Biosystem Inc. (Toronto). The pAd?E1A(D24), pMD18-T Simple-HCMVMCS-polyA(SV40) and pXC2-CEA plasmids were previously constructed by our group. The pCA13-ST13, ONYX-015 and Ad-WT viruses were maintained in our laboratory. Antibodies against caspase-3, caspase-9, Fas, Bcl-XL, CHOP, E1A, p38, Phospho-p38 MAP Kinase, ATF-2 and Phospho-ATF2 were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. The PARP-1/2 and b-actin antibodies were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA, U.S.A), 12926553 anti-ST13 and antiPotent Antitumor Effect of Ad(ST13)*CEA*E1A(D24)Figure 1. Construction and characterization of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24).(ST13) represents the expression cassette. A. Schematic construction of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) and Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24). The native E1A get Ergocalciferol promoter was replaced by the CEA promoter to control the expression of the E1A gene with a 24-bp deletion. An ST13 or EGFP expression cassette under the control of the hCMV promoter was inserted between the y packing signal sequence and the E1A gene. B. Ide.R’s instructions. Each recombinant adenovirus was selected after three rounds of plaque purification in HEK293 cells and was separately identified by PCR. The final purification of the virus was performed by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation.Cell Lines and Cell CultureHEK293 (human embryonic kidney cell line) cells, A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma line), Colo-320(human colon cancer cell line), and MCF-7(human breast cancer cell line) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Rockville, MD, USA). HeLa (human cervical carcinoma cell line), SW620, HT29 and HCT116 (human colorectal cancer cell lines), WI38 (human normal fetal lung fibroblast cell line), and QSG-7701 (human normal liver cell line) cells were purchased from the Cell Bank at the Type Culture Collection of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Shanghai, China). SW620 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM, GIBCO BRL, Grand Island, NY) that was supplemented with 5 fetal bovine serum (FBS), 4 mM glutamine, penicillin (100 U/mL), and streptomycin (100 mg/mL). 15481974 All of the other cell lines were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10 FBS. All of the cell cultures were maintained at 37uC with 5 CO2 in a humidified incubator. Cells in a logarithmic growth phase were used for the experiments.Western Blot AnalysisTo further explore the molecular mechanisms responsible for the cell death induced by the recombinant adenovirus, Western blot analyses were performed. SW620 and HCT116 cells were seeded into 6-well plates at a density of 56105 per well and cultured overnight, and they were then treated with or without the virus for 48 h. Both adherent and floating cells were harvested in lysis buffer [62.5 mM Tris-HCl (pH 6.8), 2 sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 10 mM glycerol, and 1.55 dithiothreitol]. Protein concentrations were determined using a Bicinchoninic Acid (BCA) protein assay kit (Thermo Scientific, Rockford, USA). Equal amounts of proteins were separated by 12 SDS-PAGE and were then transferred to nitrocellulose (NC) membranes. The membranes were blocked with 5 skim milk and then incubated with primary antibodies and the appropriate secondary fluorescent antibodies. Immunodetection was visualized using an Odyssey infrared imaging system (LICOR Biosciences Inc, America).Materials and Methods Plasmids, Virus and ReagentsThe pMD18-T vector was purchased from TaKaRa, Ltd., and the pBHGE3 plasmid was purchased from Microbix Biosystem Inc. (Toronto). The pAd?E1A(D24), pMD18-T Simple-HCMVMCS-polyA(SV40) and pXC2-CEA plasmids were previously constructed by our group. The pCA13-ST13, ONYX-015 and Ad-WT viruses were maintained in our laboratory. Antibodies against caspase-3, caspase-9, Fas, Bcl-XL, CHOP, E1A, p38, Phospho-p38 MAP Kinase, ATF-2 and Phospho-ATF2 were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. The PARP-1/2 and b-actin antibodies were obtained from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA, U.S.A), 12926553 anti-ST13 and antiPotent Antitumor Effect of Ad(ST13)*CEA*E1A(D24)Figure 1. Construction and characterization of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24).(ST13) represents the expression cassette. A. Schematic construction of Ad?(ST13)?CEA?E1A(D24) and Ad?(EGFP)?CEA?E1A(D24). The native E1A promoter was replaced by the CEA promoter to control the expression of the E1A gene with a 24-bp deletion. An ST13 or EGFP expression cassette under the control of the hCMV promoter was inserted between the y packing signal sequence and the E1A gene. B. Ide.

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