With 2 agarose gel and Tris cetate DTA buffer at 50 V. The

With 2 agarose gel and Tris cetate DTA buffer at 50 V. The DNA fragmentation pattern was visualized with use of a UV transilluminator.Hoechst 33258 Staining Analysis of Cell ApoptosisCells grown on the glass UKI-1 web cover-slips were fixed with 4 paraformaldehyde/PBS for 30 min, washed for 15 min in 0.1 Triton X-100/PBS and incubated in dark with Hoechst 33258 (10 mg/ml) for 15 min. After the cover-slips were washed in PBS, positive nuclei were counted. Normal nuclei and apoptotic nuclei (condensed or fragmented chromatin) were easily distinguished.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054774.tregulation AFP and STAT3 expression contributed to As2O3induced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in AFPGC.Lecirelin quantitative Real-time PCRCells were cultured with As2O3 (5 mmol/L) for 72 h. Total RNA was extracted with use of Trizol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) and quantified by spectrophotometry. Firststrand cDNA was prepared with use of random primers following the kit instructions (Takara, Japan). Real-time quantitative PCR of AFP, STAT3 and its downstream genes involved the 7300 Realtime PCR System (ABI, USA) with Takara SYBR Premix Ex Taq reagents (Takara, Japan). Primers were designed and validated by Invitrogen. The primer information is in Table 1. PCR reactions were carried out in triplicate in a 20-mL volume for 2 min at 94uC for initial denaturing, followed by 30 cycles at 94uC for 30 s and at 60uC for 45 s. A housekeeping control gene GAPDH was used as an internal control. Each primer set was first tested to determine optimal concentrations, and products were run on a 1 agarose gel to confirm the appropriate size. Subsequently, ABI dissociation curve software was used to control for multiple species in each PCR amplification. cDNA from FU97 cells without As2O3 treatment was used 11967625 to construct a standard curve for each gene.Materials and Methods Ethics StatementThe study protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics andHuman Clinical Trial Committee of the Jinan Central Hospital. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients.Cell Culture and Drug TreatmentThe human AFPGC cell line FU97 was obtained from the Japanese Collection of Research Bioresources (Japan) and was maintained in DMEM (Invitrogen) supplemented with 10 fetal bovine serum (FBS; Invitrogen), with 1 antibiotics at 37uC in 5 CO2 humidified air. As2O3 (Sigma) was dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 1 mol/L as a stock solution and stored at 4uC. For in vitro use, the stock solution was diluted to the appropriate concentration in growth medium without FBS. Exponentially growing cells were treated with As2O3 at final concentrations of 1, 5, or 10 mmol/L. Control cultures were treated with distilled PBS at a final concentration of 0.1 in culture medium. All experiments were performed in triplicate.Western Blot AnalysisCell pellets were homogenized in extraction buffer (50 mmol/L Tris-HCl, pH 6.8, 0.1 SDS, 150 mmol/L NaCl, 100 mg/L phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1 mg/L aprotinin, 1 NP-40 and 0.5 sodium orthovanadate), incubated at 4uC for 30 min, and centrifuged for 20 min at 12 000 g/min. Total protein in the cell lysate was measured with use of the Bio-Rad colorimetric kit (BioRad, Hercules, CA, USA). For western blot analysis, total protein was separated on 10 SDS-PAGE and transferred onto nitrocellulose membranes (0.45 mm, Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA), which were incubated for 24 h at 4uC with the antibodies for AFP (1:500, R D), STAT3 (1:1000),caspa.With 2 agarose gel and Tris cetate DTA buffer at 50 V. The DNA fragmentation pattern was visualized with use of a UV transilluminator.Hoechst 33258 Staining Analysis of Cell ApoptosisCells grown on the glass cover-slips were fixed with 4 paraformaldehyde/PBS for 30 min, washed for 15 min in 0.1 Triton X-100/PBS and incubated in dark with Hoechst 33258 (10 mg/ml) for 15 min. After the cover-slips were washed in PBS, positive nuclei were counted. Normal nuclei and apoptotic nuclei (condensed or fragmented chromatin) were easily distinguished.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054774.tregulation AFP and STAT3 expression contributed to As2O3induced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in AFPGC.Quantitative Real-time PCRCells were cultured with As2O3 (5 mmol/L) for 72 h. Total RNA was extracted with use of Trizol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) and quantified by spectrophotometry. Firststrand cDNA was prepared with use of random primers following the kit instructions (Takara, Japan). Real-time quantitative PCR of AFP, STAT3 and its downstream genes involved the 7300 Realtime PCR System (ABI, USA) with Takara SYBR Premix Ex Taq reagents (Takara, Japan). Primers were designed and validated by Invitrogen. The primer information is in Table 1. PCR reactions were carried out in triplicate in a 20-mL volume for 2 min at 94uC for initial denaturing, followed by 30 cycles at 94uC for 30 s and at 60uC for 45 s. A housekeeping control gene GAPDH was used as an internal control. Each primer set was first tested to determine optimal concentrations, and products were run on a 1 agarose gel to confirm the appropriate size. Subsequently, ABI dissociation curve software was used to control for multiple species in each PCR amplification. cDNA from FU97 cells without As2O3 treatment was used 11967625 to construct a standard curve for each gene.Materials and Methods Ethics StatementThe study protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics andHuman Clinical Trial Committee of the Jinan Central Hospital. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients.Cell Culture and Drug TreatmentThe human AFPGC cell line FU97 was obtained from the Japanese Collection of Research Bioresources (Japan) and was maintained in DMEM (Invitrogen) supplemented with 10 fetal bovine serum (FBS; Invitrogen), with 1 antibiotics at 37uC in 5 CO2 humidified air. As2O3 (Sigma) was dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 1 mol/L as a stock solution and stored at 4uC. For in vitro use, the stock solution was diluted to the appropriate concentration in growth medium without FBS. Exponentially growing cells were treated with As2O3 at final concentrations of 1, 5, or 10 mmol/L. Control cultures were treated with distilled PBS at a final concentration of 0.1 in culture medium. All experiments were performed in triplicate.Western Blot AnalysisCell pellets were homogenized in extraction buffer (50 mmol/L Tris-HCl, pH 6.8, 0.1 SDS, 150 mmol/L NaCl, 100 mg/L phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 1 mg/L aprotinin, 1 NP-40 and 0.5 sodium orthovanadate), incubated at 4uC for 30 min, and centrifuged for 20 min at 12 000 g/min. Total protein in the cell lysate was measured with use of the Bio-Rad colorimetric kit (BioRad, Hercules, CA, USA). For western blot analysis, total protein was separated on 10 SDS-PAGE and transferred onto nitrocellulose membranes (0.45 mm, Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA), which were incubated for 24 h at 4uC with the antibodies for AFP (1:500, R D), STAT3 (1:1000),caspa.

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