A oligomer decreased significantly in the animals with isoflurane exposure compared

A oligomer decreased significantly in the animals with isoflurane TA 02 site exposure compared with the control (p = 0.041).Hemodynamics and Blood Gas AnalysisIsoflurane exposure may decrease blood pressure and depress respiration; therefore, we monitored blood pressure and heart rate during isoflurane anesthesia. As shown in Figure 4, blood pressure and heart rate decreased Naringin following isoflurane exposure in both the transgenic and wild-type mice, but these parameters remained stable over the course of the anesthesia. To prevent hypoxia during isoflurane exposure, we analyzed the blood gas levels at the end of isoflurane exposure, which revealed normal oxygenation (transgenic mice/wild type: 128.6761.76 mmHg/130.566 2.13 mmHg), adequate PCO2 values (41.4661.43 mmHg/ 42.236 1.56 mmHg) and no acidosis (pH: 7.3560.06/ 7.3760.05).Figure 2. The Y maze was performed five months following the isoflurane exposure. A: The number of learning trails to reach the final criterion. No difference was found among the groups. B: Avoidance errors. No difference was found among the groups. C: Discrimination errors. The mice in the Ad-iso group made significantly fewer discrimination errors than the mice in the Ad-con group. No difference was found between the two wild-type groups. *: p,0.05 compared with the Ad-con group. D: No difference in the foot shock voltage was found among the groups. (Ad-iso, n = 20; Ad-con, n = 20; Wt-iso, n = 16; Wt-con, n = 13). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050172.gIsoflurane Attenuates Memory ImpairmentFigure 3. Abeta plaques and oligomers in the hippocampus. Following the isoflurane exposure during mid-adulthood, 1480666 compared to the Adcon group (A), the Abeta plaque was significantly decreased in the Ad-iso group (B). Statistical analysis of the percent area of the Abeta plaques in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus(C). Compared to the Ad-con group, the Abeta oligomer was significantly decreased in the Ad-iso group (D) 5 months following isoflurane exposure. (n = 5). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050172.gDiscussionIn this study, we demonstrated that spatial memory improved 48 hours after isoflurane exposure in 7-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Additionally, isoflurane exposure during mid-adulthood attenuated learning and memory deficits and decreased the deposition of Abeta plaque and oligomers 5 months later in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The effect of isoflurane on the spatial memory of adult animals is still controversial. In a study by Culley [5], rats were initially trained in the 12-arm maze and then treated with 1.2 1407003 isoflurane and 70 nitrous oxide/30 oxygen for 2 h. They found that anesthetized 6-month-old rats made fewer errors 8 weeks following anesthesia. Crosby [6] demonstrated that 1.2 isoflurane and 70 nitrous oxide administered for 2 hours improved 12-arm maze performance 2 weeks later. Rammes [7] showed that 1.33 isoflurane anesthesia induced an improvement in learning in the hole board test. In our previous study, we also demonstrated that repeated isoflurane exposure improved the spatial memory of 2month-old mice [8]. However, Butterfield [9] demonstrated thatsingle or repeated isoflurane exposure did not affect spatial memory in adult mice. Culley [10] anesthetized 6-month-old rats using 1.2 isoflurane and 70 nitrous oxide/30 oxygen for 2 h and found impaired learning and memory in the 12-arm maze. In the present study, 7-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice and their non-transgenic li.A oligomer decreased significantly in the animals with isoflurane exposure compared with the control (p = 0.041).Hemodynamics and Blood Gas AnalysisIsoflurane exposure may decrease blood pressure and depress respiration; therefore, we monitored blood pressure and heart rate during isoflurane anesthesia. As shown in Figure 4, blood pressure and heart rate decreased following isoflurane exposure in both the transgenic and wild-type mice, but these parameters remained stable over the course of the anesthesia. To prevent hypoxia during isoflurane exposure, we analyzed the blood gas levels at the end of isoflurane exposure, which revealed normal oxygenation (transgenic mice/wild type: 128.6761.76 mmHg/130.566 2.13 mmHg), adequate PCO2 values (41.4661.43 mmHg/ 42.236 1.56 mmHg) and no acidosis (pH: 7.3560.06/ 7.3760.05).Figure 2. The Y maze was performed five months following the isoflurane exposure. A: The number of learning trails to reach the final criterion. No difference was found among the groups. B: Avoidance errors. No difference was found among the groups. C: Discrimination errors. The mice in the Ad-iso group made significantly fewer discrimination errors than the mice in the Ad-con group. No difference was found between the two wild-type groups. *: p,0.05 compared with the Ad-con group. D: No difference in the foot shock voltage was found among the groups. (Ad-iso, n = 20; Ad-con, n = 20; Wt-iso, n = 16; Wt-con, n = 13). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050172.gIsoflurane Attenuates Memory ImpairmentFigure 3. Abeta plaques and oligomers in the hippocampus. Following the isoflurane exposure during mid-adulthood, 1480666 compared to the Adcon group (A), the Abeta plaque was significantly decreased in the Ad-iso group (B). Statistical analysis of the percent area of the Abeta plaques in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus(C). Compared to the Ad-con group, the Abeta oligomer was significantly decreased in the Ad-iso group (D) 5 months following isoflurane exposure. (n = 5). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050172.gDiscussionIn this study, we demonstrated that spatial memory improved 48 hours after isoflurane exposure in 7-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice and their non-transgenic littermates. Additionally, isoflurane exposure during mid-adulthood attenuated learning and memory deficits and decreased the deposition of Abeta plaque and oligomers 5 months later in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The effect of isoflurane on the spatial memory of adult animals is still controversial. In a study by Culley [5], rats were initially trained in the 12-arm maze and then treated with 1.2 1407003 isoflurane and 70 nitrous oxide/30 oxygen for 2 h. They found that anesthetized 6-month-old rats made fewer errors 8 weeks following anesthesia. Crosby [6] demonstrated that 1.2 isoflurane and 70 nitrous oxide administered for 2 hours improved 12-arm maze performance 2 weeks later. Rammes [7] showed that 1.33 isoflurane anesthesia induced an improvement in learning in the hole board test. In our previous study, we also demonstrated that repeated isoflurane exposure improved the spatial memory of 2month-old mice [8]. However, Butterfield [9] demonstrated thatsingle or repeated isoflurane exposure did not affect spatial memory in adult mice. Culley [10] anesthetized 6-month-old rats using 1.2 isoflurane and 70 nitrous oxide/30 oxygen for 2 h and found impaired learning and memory in the 12-arm maze. In the present study, 7-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice and their non-transgenic li.

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