Of the parafollicular cells loss and the reduction calcitonin production in

Of the parafollicular cells loss and the reduction calcitonin production in the absence of weight. We propose that the reduction of calcitonin may be involved in osteoporotic damage produced during space missions. Our results clearly indicate that the hypergravity induces a similar effect to that obtained in hypogravity, suggesting that, in any case, the change of mechanical force results in a stress condition with the same damage on thyroid parafollicular cells. It has beendemonstrated that short term exposure to hypergravity induces significant reductions in the thicknesses of cortical bone at the anterior (13 ) and medial regions (15 ) of the mid-diaphysis but femoral bone density, collagen and Homatropine (methylbromide) cost calcium concentrations are unaltered [23]. In addition the content of mature, stable bone collagen cross-links hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP), are significantly greater in bones from centrifuged animals than in bones from control animals [23]. Since it was notThyroid Parafollicular Cells and Gravitysubject of our study, while blood was collected from other groups for different analyses. Future space missions and hypergravity experiments could clarify this aspect of the study.Materials and Methods Experimental design and animal careAll experimental procedures were authorized by the Public Veterinary Health Department of the Italian Ministry of Health. The experiment was also conducted in accordance with the regulations for the care and use of laboratory animals and with the guidelines of the Japanese Physiological Society. Furthermore, this study was also approved by the Committee on Animal Care 1480666 and Use at Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University (No. 22071). Finally, the protocol utilized in the study has been authorized by the Public Veterinary Health Department of the Italian Ministry of Health. All experiments were carried out using male C57BL/10J mice (8 weeks old).Hypogravity experimentWT and PTN-TG mice (n = 3 each) were individually housed in the Mouse Drawer System (MDS), a 11.669.868.4 cm payload developed by Thales-Alenia Space Italy and all treatments were performed as previously reported [13]. Food and water were supplied ad libitum. The MDS, loaded with 3 WT and 3 TG mice, was launched in the Space Shuttle Discovery, within the Space Transport System (STS)-128 mission, on August 28, 2009. It was then housed in Japanese Experimental Module (Kibou) on the ISS until its return to the Earth by Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-129 mission) on November 27, 2009. Only 1 WT and 2 TG mice returned to the Earth alive after 91 days of 1407003 space flight. Thyroids were sampled bilaterally from each mouse killed by inhalation of carbon dioxide at the Life Sciences Support Facility of Kennedy Space Center within 3? hours after landing and either processed or frozen immediately, according to the various experimental protocols. The procedure was approved by the IACUC protocol nu FLT-09-070(KSC). After the 4-IBP web spaceflight experiment, the on-ground experiment was also carried out at the Vivarium of the Advanced Biotechnology Center in Genova, Italy. One group of mice with the same species, sex, and age were housed in normal vivarium cage as the laboratory control (Vivarium1). Amount of food and water supplementation and environmental conditions were simulated as the flight group. After 3 months, thyroids were sampled bilaterally from 3 WT and 3 TG mice and treated as above reported for spaceflight mice.Figure 3. Effect of the gravity.Of the parafollicular cells loss and the reduction calcitonin production in the absence of weight. We propose that the reduction of calcitonin may be involved in osteoporotic damage produced during space missions. Our results clearly indicate that the hypergravity induces a similar effect to that obtained in hypogravity, suggesting that, in any case, the change of mechanical force results in a stress condition with the same damage on thyroid parafollicular cells. It has beendemonstrated that short term exposure to hypergravity induces significant reductions in the thicknesses of cortical bone at the anterior (13 ) and medial regions (15 ) of the mid-diaphysis but femoral bone density, collagen and calcium concentrations are unaltered [23]. In addition the content of mature, stable bone collagen cross-links hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP), are significantly greater in bones from centrifuged animals than in bones from control animals [23]. Since it was notThyroid Parafollicular Cells and Gravitysubject of our study, while blood was collected from other groups for different analyses. Future space missions and hypergravity experiments could clarify this aspect of the study.Materials and Methods Experimental design and animal careAll experimental procedures were authorized by the Public Veterinary Health Department of the Italian Ministry of Health. The experiment was also conducted in accordance with the regulations for the care and use of laboratory animals and with the guidelines of the Japanese Physiological Society. Furthermore, this study was also approved by the Committee on Animal Care 1480666 and Use at Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University (No. 22071). Finally, the protocol utilized in the study has been authorized by the Public Veterinary Health Department of the Italian Ministry of Health. All experiments were carried out using male C57BL/10J mice (8 weeks old).Hypogravity experimentWT and PTN-TG mice (n = 3 each) were individually housed in the Mouse Drawer System (MDS), a 11.669.868.4 cm payload developed by Thales-Alenia Space Italy and all treatments were performed as previously reported [13]. Food and water were supplied ad libitum. The MDS, loaded with 3 WT and 3 TG mice, was launched in the Space Shuttle Discovery, within the Space Transport System (STS)-128 mission, on August 28, 2009. It was then housed in Japanese Experimental Module (Kibou) on the ISS until its return to the Earth by Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-129 mission) on November 27, 2009. Only 1 WT and 2 TG mice returned to the Earth alive after 91 days of 1407003 space flight. Thyroids were sampled bilaterally from each mouse killed by inhalation of carbon dioxide at the Life Sciences Support Facility of Kennedy Space Center within 3? hours after landing and either processed or frozen immediately, according to the various experimental protocols. The procedure was approved by the IACUC protocol nu FLT-09-070(KSC). After the spaceflight experiment, the on-ground experiment was also carried out at the Vivarium of the Advanced Biotechnology Center in Genova, Italy. One group of mice with the same species, sex, and age were housed in normal vivarium cage as the laboratory control (Vivarium1). Amount of food and water supplementation and environmental conditions were simulated as the flight group. After 3 months, thyroids were sampled bilaterally from 3 WT and 3 TG mice and treated as above reported for spaceflight mice.Figure 3. Effect of the gravity.

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