Ost of the glucose uptake when both transporters are present. The

Ost of the glucose uptake when both transporters are present. The kinetics (i.e., time-dependent behavior) of glucose transport through the two transporters is also different. In addition, because of the lower KD value of GLUT-1, the relative difference between the steady-states at high and low blood glucose is smaller for this transporter (Figure 1). The diminished b-cell surface expression of GLUT-1 and GLUT-2 in T2D can strongly affect glycolysis, even in the presence of normal GK activity. Since intracellular glucose concentration is much lower than normal, the GK rate and G6P accumulation are also strongly reduced (Figure 1).Metabolic ThresholdOnce inside the b-cell, intracellular glucose is subject to two competitive mechanisms: outward diffusion through glucose transporters and phosphorylation by GK. The GK rate has been calculated to be a slow enzymatic step that normally is ratelimiting for Finafloxacin web insulin secretion [9]. For a range of intracellular glucose concentrations, we compared the GK rate of G6P production with the outward diffusion rates of glucose through GLUT-1 and GLUT-2 in a healthy b-cell (Figure 2A). The results confirm that the glucose phosphorylation rate by GK is much slower than the outward glucose transport through both GLUT-1 and GLUT-2 under normal conditions. This means that after glucose enters the cell most of it diffuses out because GK phosphorylation is relatively slow. Thus GK is the glucose sensor and rate-limiting factor in G6P formation among healthy b-cells. However, when b-cell surface expression of GLUT-2 is approximately 20 of normal (e 0:2 in equation (1)), its outwards transport rate is comparable to the GK rate (Figure 2A). Thus, in a b-cell expressing 20 of normal GLUT-2, and in the absence of GLUT-1, there is a transition in the controlling mechanism forming G6P. Below this threshold of GLUT-2 expression, glucose transport becomes the rate-limiting factor. We evaluated the steady-state G6P production rate at reduced levels of glucose transporter expression when extra-cellular glucose concentration is elevated to 16.8 mM, in order to determine when the GK rate falls below the calculated threshold. We used the model to simulate the concerted reductions of GLUT-1 and GLUT-2 at the b-cell plasma membrane. The results are shown in Figure 2B, where a healthy b-cell is represented at the top right corner, with a GK rate of 0.12 nmol/min/105 cells. The T2D patients previously studied [7] are represented in the lower left region. In b-cells expressing 20 GLUT-2 and no GLUT-1, the threshold 307538-42-7 web condition identified in Figure 2A, intracellular glucose concentration is about 6.5 mM and GK rate is 0.07 nmol/min/ 105 cells. This intracellular glucose concentration is 50 of normal and consequently the GK rate is approximately 60 of normal. This further specifies the critical threshold or tipping point when transition occurs from GK-controlled to glucose transportcontrolled G6P formation. In Figure 2B, we highlighted all the possible combinations of GLUT-1 and GLUT-2 expression that produce the same critical GK rate. Strikingly, data points from the T2D patients are located below this threshold. These findings further agree with experimental data [7] and indicate that glucose transport by GLUT-1 can compensate for the absence ofResults Initial Steps in GSISGlucose transport into the b-cell occurs by facilitated diffusion through plasma membrane-resident GLUT-1 and GLUT-2. While Glut-2 is the main transporter in.Ost of the glucose uptake when both transporters are present. The kinetics (i.e., time-dependent behavior) of glucose transport through the two transporters is also different. In addition, because of the lower KD value of GLUT-1, the relative difference between the steady-states at high and low blood glucose is smaller for this transporter (Figure 1). The diminished b-cell surface expression of GLUT-1 and GLUT-2 in T2D can strongly affect glycolysis, even in the presence of normal GK activity. Since intracellular glucose concentration is much lower than normal, the GK rate and G6P accumulation are also strongly reduced (Figure 1).Metabolic ThresholdOnce inside the b-cell, intracellular glucose is subject to two competitive mechanisms: outward diffusion through glucose transporters and phosphorylation by GK. The GK rate has been calculated to be a slow enzymatic step that normally is ratelimiting for insulin secretion [9]. For a range of intracellular glucose concentrations, we compared the GK rate of G6P production with the outward diffusion rates of glucose through GLUT-1 and GLUT-2 in a healthy b-cell (Figure 2A). The results confirm that the glucose phosphorylation rate by GK is much slower than the outward glucose transport through both GLUT-1 and GLUT-2 under normal conditions. This means that after glucose enters the cell most of it diffuses out because GK phosphorylation is relatively slow. Thus GK is the glucose sensor and rate-limiting factor in G6P formation among healthy b-cells. However, when b-cell surface expression of GLUT-2 is approximately 20 of normal (e 0:2 in equation (1)), its outwards transport rate is comparable to the GK rate (Figure 2A). Thus, in a b-cell expressing 20 of normal GLUT-2, and in the absence of GLUT-1, there is a transition in the controlling mechanism forming G6P. Below this threshold of GLUT-2 expression, glucose transport becomes the rate-limiting factor. We evaluated the steady-state G6P production rate at reduced levels of glucose transporter expression when extra-cellular glucose concentration is elevated to 16.8 mM, in order to determine when the GK rate falls below the calculated threshold. We used the model to simulate the concerted reductions of GLUT-1 and GLUT-2 at the b-cell plasma membrane. The results are shown in Figure 2B, where a healthy b-cell is represented at the top right corner, with a GK rate of 0.12 nmol/min/105 cells. The T2D patients previously studied [7] are represented in the lower left region. In b-cells expressing 20 GLUT-2 and no GLUT-1, the threshold condition identified in Figure 2A, intracellular glucose concentration is about 6.5 mM and GK rate is 0.07 nmol/min/ 105 cells. This intracellular glucose concentration is 50 of normal and consequently the GK rate is approximately 60 of normal. This further specifies the critical threshold or tipping point when transition occurs from GK-controlled to glucose transportcontrolled G6P formation. In Figure 2B, we highlighted all the possible combinations of GLUT-1 and GLUT-2 expression that produce the same critical GK rate. Strikingly, data points from the T2D patients are located below this threshold. These findings further agree with experimental data [7] and indicate that glucose transport by GLUT-1 can compensate for the absence ofResults Initial Steps in GSISGlucose transport into the b-cell occurs by facilitated diffusion through plasma membrane-resident GLUT-1 and GLUT-2. While Glut-2 is the main transporter in.

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