Ssion in infected (p24+) CD4 T cells as the percent of the level of expression in the matched non nfected tissue. This analysis Pentagastrin chemical information revealed that, in tissues infected with C/R viruses, 140611.7 (median 127.23 , IQR [100.8 , 174.4 ], n = 17, p = 0.004) of HIV-1 nfected CD4 T cells expressed CD25 compared to those in control uninfected tissues. Similarly, larger fractions of HIV infected T cells expressed the activation markers CD38, CD95 and HLADR: respectively 153631.2 (n = 17, p = 0.0253), 123614.2 (n = 9, p = 0.012) and 203633.72 (n = 17, p = 0.003) relative to these fractions in donor matched control tissues. In contrast, there was no difference between CD69-expression in HIV-1 infected CD4 T cells as compared to cells in uninfected control tissues (n = 9, p = 0.055). In tissues infected with T/F viruses, our analysis revealed that the fraction of HIV-infected CD4 T cells was enriched in cells expressing CD38 and HLA-DR (p = 0.007), but not CD25, CD69, or CD95 (p.0.28). HIV-1 nfected T cells expressing CD38 and HLA-DR constituted, respectively 161620.9 (median 144.23 , IQR [121.8 , 211.5 ], n = 11, p = 0.0068) and 277.79685.17 (median 191.21 , IQR [95.5 , 348.57 ], n = 11, p = 0.0244) of the number CD4 T cells expressing these markers in control tissues. In tissues inoculated ASP015K chemical information either with T/F or C/R HIV-1 variants and treated with 3TC, there was no increase in the fractions of CD4 T cells expressing activation markers compared to donor-matched control tissues (p = 0.074, p = 0.91). Infection by both C/R and T/F HIV-1 variants resulted in activation of not only productively infected (p24+) but also of uninfected (p242) bystander CD4 T cells, as shown by the higher expression of some of the tested markers by the latter cells compared to their expression by CD4 T cells in uninfected tissues. This difference reached statistical significance for CD25. However, this activation of uninfected bystander CDTransmission of Founder HIV-1 to Cervical ExplantsFigure 1. Replication of various C/R and T/F HIV-1 variants in human cervical tissue ex vivo. Donor-matched human cervical tissue blocks were infected ex-vivo with C/R and T/F viruses in presence or absence of 3TC. Culture media were collected every 3 days up to day 12 and the amount of p24 was measured. In addition, 12 days post infection, the tissues were enzymatically digested and their cells were analyzed by polychromatic flow cytometry. T cells were identified by side-scatter and staining for CD3. The CD4 T cell subset was defined as CD8?T cells since the down-regulation of CD4 in HIV-1 infected cells 1407003 precludes use of staining for CD4. CD4 T cell, which were infected with HIV-1 were revealed by staining for p24.(a) For each virus, cumulative values for the net p24 production ([p24] in untreated 2 [p24] in 3TC-treated donor-matched tissues) were computed and plotted as box plots (median, 25th and 75th percentiles, and range) on a log scale (left Y-axis; empty boxes; C/R virus: n = 23; T/F viruses: n = 30). The fractions of p24+ positive cells among CD82CD3+ cells were plotted on a linear axis (right Y-axis; filled boxes; n = 19, and n = 14, respectively) (b). Bivariate plots showing p24 and CD8 staining in T cells; the values represent the fraction of CD82CD3+ cells expressing p24 as defined by the plotted gate. Plots illustrate a representative experiment. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050839.gT cells was not different in tissues infected by T/F or C/R HIV-1 variants (p.0.77 ).Thus, in tiss.Ssion in infected (p24+) CD4 T cells as the percent of the level of expression in the matched non nfected tissue. This analysis revealed that, in tissues infected with C/R viruses, 140611.7 (median 127.23 , IQR [100.8 , 174.4 ], n = 17, p = 0.004) of HIV-1 nfected CD4 T cells expressed CD25 compared to those in control uninfected tissues. Similarly, larger fractions of HIV infected T cells expressed the activation markers CD38, CD95 and HLADR: respectively 153631.2 (n = 17, p = 0.0253), 123614.2 (n = 9, p = 0.012) and 203633.72 (n = 17, p = 0.003) relative to these fractions in donor matched control tissues. In contrast, there was no difference between CD69-expression in HIV-1 infected CD4 T cells as compared to cells in uninfected control tissues (n = 9, p = 0.055). In tissues infected with T/F viruses, our analysis revealed that the fraction of HIV-infected CD4 T cells was enriched in cells expressing CD38 and HLA-DR (p = 0.007), but not CD25, CD69, or CD95 (p.0.28). HIV-1 nfected T cells expressing CD38 and HLA-DR constituted, respectively 161620.9 (median 144.23 , IQR [121.8 , 211.5 ], n = 11, p = 0.0068) and 277.79685.17 (median 191.21 , IQR [95.5 , 348.57 ], n = 11, p = 0.0244) of the number CD4 T cells expressing these markers in control tissues. In tissues inoculated either with T/F or C/R HIV-1 variants and treated with 3TC, there was no increase in the fractions of CD4 T cells expressing activation markers compared to donor-matched control tissues (p = 0.074, p = 0.91). Infection by both C/R and T/F HIV-1 variants resulted in activation of not only productively infected (p24+) but also of uninfected (p242) bystander CD4 T cells, as shown by the higher expression of some of the tested markers by the latter cells compared to their expression by CD4 T cells in uninfected tissues. This difference reached statistical significance for CD25. However, this activation of uninfected bystander CDTransmission of Founder HIV-1 to Cervical ExplantsFigure 1. Replication of various C/R and T/F HIV-1 variants in human cervical tissue ex vivo. Donor-matched human cervical tissue blocks were infected ex-vivo with C/R and T/F viruses in presence or absence of 3TC. Culture media were collected every 3 days up to day 12 and the amount of p24 was measured. In addition, 12 days post infection, the tissues were enzymatically digested and their cells were analyzed by polychromatic flow cytometry. T cells were identified by side-scatter and staining for CD3. The CD4 T cell subset was defined as CD8?T cells since the down-regulation of CD4 in HIV-1 infected cells 1407003 precludes use of staining for CD4. CD4 T cell, which were infected with HIV-1 were revealed by staining for p24.(a) For each virus, cumulative values for the net p24 production ([p24] in untreated 2 [p24] in 3TC-treated donor-matched tissues) were computed and plotted as box plots (median, 25th and 75th percentiles, and range) on a log scale (left Y-axis; empty boxes; C/R virus: n = 23; T/F viruses: n = 30). The fractions of p24+ positive cells among CD82CD3+ cells were plotted on a linear axis (right Y-axis; filled boxes; n = 19, and n = 14, respectively) (b). Bivariate plots showing p24 and CD8 staining in T cells; the values represent the fraction of CD82CD3+ cells expressing p24 as defined by the plotted gate. Plots illustrate a representative experiment. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050839.gT cells was not different in tissues infected by T/F or C/R HIV-1 variants (p.0.77 ).Thus, in tiss.