Hold shear stress gradient exposes the A2 domain allowing cleavage by

Hold shear stress gradient exposes the A2 domain allowing cleavage by ADAMTS13 [4]. Furthermore, the rate of transport of coagulation zymogens and enzymes to and from a clot depend on shear rate. For example, fibrin formation is inhibited at high shear rates because fibrin monomers and thrombin are washed out before fibrin fibers can form [5]. Despite these numerous shear stress and shear rate dependent mechanisms, there is no accepted clinical method to evaluate thrombus formation under physiological shear stresses. Flow assays continue to be an indispensible research tool that best recreate the hemodynamic conditions of the vasculature.However, the high volume (10?00 mL) requirements and low throughput of annular and parallel plate flow chambers make them prohibitive for a clinical assay. In the last few years, there have been several reported methods that use a combination of microfluidic channels and micropatterning of prothrombotic proteins to address these issues [6,7]. Microfluidic channels with dimensions of 10?00 mm reduce the amount of whole blood required to 0.1? mL. Fabricating multiple channels as part of a single device allows for higher throughput to simultaneously measure platelet function over a range of shear stresses and to perform dose-response experiments for antiplatelet agents [8?0]. Given these advances and the commercialization of microfluidic platforms for cell adhesion assays [11,12], it is timely to explore their translation into a clinical assay. If flow assays are to become a clinical tool, the normal response must be quantified. This is important because without characterizing the normal range within the assays, we will not be able to discriminate between normal and abnormal responses. The variability in platelet function within in the normal population is significant. This variability stems from several genotypic and phenotypic differences between individuals [13,14]. The objectiveVariability in Microfluidic Flow Assaysof this study was to measure how some of the previously identified phenotypic and genetic factors known to affect platelet function, as well as certain experimental 1655472 conditions (collagen surface density, anticoagulant, assay duration), effect the variability in platelet accumulation on type 1 fibrillar collagen at venous and arterial shear rates in a microfluidic flow assay (MFA) [15?7]. We evaluated the combined role of hematocrit, platelet count, sex, VWF levels and collagen receptor genotypes on platelet accumulation under flow in 50 healthy individuals. Neither hematocrit nor platelet count within the normal ranges were found to affect platelet accumulation. We found VWF plasma levels, and GP6 genotype to be significant factors in platelet function on type 1 collagen under flow. A longer lag time for platelet accumulation at arterial shear rates compared to venous shear rates was attributed the need for adsorption of certain plasma proteins, presumably VWF, prior to platelet adhesion.a 5 glucose solution; a 100 mL was pipetted into four of the wells, and then allowed to MedChemExpress CASIN adsorb to the glass slides for one hour at room temperature. Following incubation, the wells were rinsed twice with 5 glucose, and the slide was removed from the holder, thoroughly rinsed with deionized water, and gently dried with compressed air. The result of this procedure was four 5 mm x 5 mm patches of collagen spaced 5 mm (SC1 chemical information edge-to-edge) apart (Fig. 1A). Following collagen patterning, the slide was blocked with 1 m.Hold shear stress gradient exposes the A2 domain allowing cleavage by ADAMTS13 [4]. Furthermore, the rate of transport of coagulation zymogens and enzymes to and from a clot depend on shear rate. For example, fibrin formation is inhibited at high shear rates because fibrin monomers and thrombin are washed out before fibrin fibers can form [5]. Despite these numerous shear stress and shear rate dependent mechanisms, there is no accepted clinical method to evaluate thrombus formation under physiological shear stresses. Flow assays continue to be an indispensible research tool that best recreate the hemodynamic conditions of the vasculature.However, the high volume (10?00 mL) requirements and low throughput of annular and parallel plate flow chambers make them prohibitive for a clinical assay. In the last few years, there have been several reported methods that use a combination of microfluidic channels and micropatterning of prothrombotic proteins to address these issues [6,7]. Microfluidic channels with dimensions of 10?00 mm reduce the amount of whole blood required to 0.1? mL. Fabricating multiple channels as part of a single device allows for higher throughput to simultaneously measure platelet function over a range of shear stresses and to perform dose-response experiments for antiplatelet agents [8?0]. Given these advances and the commercialization of microfluidic platforms for cell adhesion assays [11,12], it is timely to explore their translation into a clinical assay. If flow assays are to become a clinical tool, the normal response must be quantified. This is important because without characterizing the normal range within the assays, we will not be able to discriminate between normal and abnormal responses. The variability in platelet function within in the normal population is significant. This variability stems from several genotypic and phenotypic differences between individuals [13,14]. The objectiveVariability in Microfluidic Flow Assaysof this study was to measure how some of the previously identified phenotypic and genetic factors known to affect platelet function, as well as certain experimental 1655472 conditions (collagen surface density, anticoagulant, assay duration), effect the variability in platelet accumulation on type 1 fibrillar collagen at venous and arterial shear rates in a microfluidic flow assay (MFA) [15?7]. We evaluated the combined role of hematocrit, platelet count, sex, VWF levels and collagen receptor genotypes on platelet accumulation under flow in 50 healthy individuals. Neither hematocrit nor platelet count within the normal ranges were found to affect platelet accumulation. We found VWF plasma levels, and GP6 genotype to be significant factors in platelet function on type 1 collagen under flow. A longer lag time for platelet accumulation at arterial shear rates compared to venous shear rates was attributed the need for adsorption of certain plasma proteins, presumably VWF, prior to platelet adhesion.a 5 glucose solution; a 100 mL was pipetted into four of the wells, and then allowed to adsorb to the glass slides for one hour at room temperature. Following incubation, the wells were rinsed twice with 5 glucose, and the slide was removed from the holder, thoroughly rinsed with deionized water, and gently dried with compressed air. The result of this procedure was four 5 mm x 5 mm patches of collagen spaced 5 mm (edge-to-edge) apart (Fig. 1A). Following collagen patterning, the slide was blocked with 1 m.

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