Elieve there is a strong possibility that the assay is measuring

Elieve there is a strong possibility that the assay is measuring immunoreactive oxytocin that comprises authentic oxytocin as well as oxytocin prohormones (OX-T) [30] or other forms of oxytocin in the unextracted samples. Recently, a novel form of oxytocin has been described in multiple species of squirrel monkeys, with a substitution of a leucine to a proline in amino acid position 8 [31]. The variant forms of oxytocin cannot be disregarded and appear to be biologically significant, as many other researchers have used the same kit to measure oxytocin inunextracted samples and found a myriad of associations with relevant physiological outcomes.StatisticsTo examine the relationship between plasma OT, Trust and Trustworthiness, we used regression models with robust standard error in STATA 11. In the first model, only plasma OT is included in the analysis to test a linear effect of OT on trust behaviors. Since U-shaped dose response curves are often observed for the action of peptide neuromodulators and steroid hormone actions in the brain [32,33], we added a quadratic in a second model to test for nonlinear relationships between plasma OT and trust related behaviors. In addition, as pointed out by a recent paper [34], the data in Zak et al [22] might indeed suggest a revered U-shaped relationship between plasma oxytocin and trust. Here, a significantly positive quadratic term would indicate a U-shaped relationship while a significant negative quadratic term would indicate an inverse U-shaped relationship. To examine gender effects, we carried out a separate analysis for each gender. All the statistics reported here are two-tailed.Results Behavioral parametersThe average amount sent from the first player (Trust) is 11.1 out of 20, while the average amount sent back to the second player (Trustworthiness) is 10.0 (Figure S1A, Figure S1B). This is similar to what is generally 1531364 observed in the TG literature: the first player sends about 50 of his/her endowment and the second player sends back about 95 of what was sent (see [24] for a survey). In a linear regression, males significantly trust more than females (p,0.039), while we observe no significant gender difference in trustworthiness (p.0.363) (Figure S2A and Figure S2B). Our results are distinct from [35] which reported significant gender difference in trustworthiness but not in trust. This discrepancy likely indicates slight MedChemExpress Finafloxacin cultural differences across populations.Plasma OT levelsThe average oxytocin level is 2146 SD 230 pg/ml (Figure S1C) which is representative of the assay procedure used in the current investigation [8]. We test whether age and gender might have an effect on plasma OT level. As usually observed [36,37], in linear regression, there is no significant gender difference in plasma OT levels (p.0.365) (Figure S2C), and also no significant age effect on Plasma OT (p.0.650). Following other investigations [38,39], we exclude 23 subjects whose plasma OT exceed 3 standard deviations (.904) from the subsequent analysis (Figure S1C), and then use the log transformation in the analysis.Relationship between plasma OT, Trust and TrustworthinessWe test the effect of plasma OT on the levels of trust and trustworthiness in the TG using both linear and non-linear regression analysis; the results are summarized in Daporinad Tables 1 and 2. Neither Trust nor Trustworthiness shows a significant linear relationship with plasma OT (Table 1, Table 2) whereas a significant non-linear U-shaped (quadrati.Elieve there is a strong possibility that the assay is measuring immunoreactive oxytocin that comprises authentic oxytocin as well as oxytocin prohormones (OX-T) [30] or other forms of oxytocin in the unextracted samples. Recently, a novel form of oxytocin has been described in multiple species of squirrel monkeys, with a substitution of a leucine to a proline in amino acid position 8 [31]. The variant forms of oxytocin cannot be disregarded and appear to be biologically significant, as many other researchers have used the same kit to measure oxytocin inunextracted samples and found a myriad of associations with relevant physiological outcomes.StatisticsTo examine the relationship between plasma OT, Trust and Trustworthiness, we used regression models with robust standard error in STATA 11. In the first model, only plasma OT is included in the analysis to test a linear effect of OT on trust behaviors. Since U-shaped dose response curves are often observed for the action of peptide neuromodulators and steroid hormone actions in the brain [32,33], we added a quadratic in a second model to test for nonlinear relationships between plasma OT and trust related behaviors. In addition, as pointed out by a recent paper [34], the data in Zak et al [22] might indeed suggest a revered U-shaped relationship between plasma oxytocin and trust. Here, a significantly positive quadratic term would indicate a U-shaped relationship while a significant negative quadratic term would indicate an inverse U-shaped relationship. To examine gender effects, we carried out a separate analysis for each gender. All the statistics reported here are two-tailed.Results Behavioral parametersThe average amount sent from the first player (Trust) is 11.1 out of 20, while the average amount sent back to the second player (Trustworthiness) is 10.0 (Figure S1A, Figure S1B). This is similar to what is generally 1531364 observed in the TG literature: the first player sends about 50 of his/her endowment and the second player sends back about 95 of what was sent (see [24] for a survey). In a linear regression, males significantly trust more than females (p,0.039), while we observe no significant gender difference in trustworthiness (p.0.363) (Figure S2A and Figure S2B). Our results are distinct from [35] which reported significant gender difference in trustworthiness but not in trust. This discrepancy likely indicates slight cultural differences across populations.Plasma OT levelsThe average oxytocin level is 2146 SD 230 pg/ml (Figure S1C) which is representative of the assay procedure used in the current investigation [8]. We test whether age and gender might have an effect on plasma OT level. As usually observed [36,37], in linear regression, there is no significant gender difference in plasma OT levels (p.0.365) (Figure S2C), and also no significant age effect on Plasma OT (p.0.650). Following other investigations [38,39], we exclude 23 subjects whose plasma OT exceed 3 standard deviations (.904) from the subsequent analysis (Figure S1C), and then use the log transformation in the analysis.Relationship between plasma OT, Trust and TrustworthinessWe test the effect of plasma OT on the levels of trust and trustworthiness in the TG using both linear and non-linear regression analysis; the results are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. Neither Trust nor Trustworthiness shows a significant linear relationship with plasma OT (Table 1, Table 2) whereas a significant non-linear U-shaped (quadrati.

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