Ifferential expression suggests that constitutively active CCR5 mutants with Pro or

Ifferential expression suggests that constitutively active CCR5 mutants with Pro or Lys in position 2.56(82) may be stabilized in distinct conformations that are differentially sensitive to internalization and/or degradation. Distinct receptor conformations of the Thr2.56(82)Lys and Thr2.56(82)Pro CCR5 mutants is supported by the report that CHO cells expressing the Thr2.56(82)Pro CCR5 mutant exhibited a wild type-like chemotactic response to the chemokine ligand, RANTES, whereas cells expressing the Thr2.56(82)Lys mutant showed no chemotactic response [21]. The extended ternary complex model of receptor activation predicts that constitutively active receptors have increased agonistConstitutively Active CCR5 Receptor Conformationsbinding affinity, even in the absence of G protein [43]. However, some constitutively active receptors do not exhibit this phenotype [57,58]. We did not find significant changes in IC50 values for MIP-1b binding to constitutively active CCR5 mutants. Arias et al reported similar results for MIP-1b binding, but found that the Thr2.56(82)Lys mutation decreased affinity for the agonist chemokines, MIP-1a and RANTES, whereas the Thr2.56(82)Pro mutation had less effect [21]. Studies with small molecule drugs have suggested that the different chemokine ligands interact with distinct CCR5 conformations [59,60]. The Thr2.56(82)Lys mutation may selectively destabilize the ensembles of CCR5 conformations that preferentially bind MIP-1a and RANTES. The gp120 subunit of HIV Env is a CCR5 receptor agonist [6,7,8]. However, Env mediates membrane fusion in cells expressing mutant CCR5 receptors that do not support chemokine-stimulated KB-R7943 chemical information signaling [23,24,25], suggesting that inactive conformations of CCR5 mediate membrane fusion. Furthermore, HIV isolates that are resistant to CCR5 blockers use drugoccupied CCR5 that is stabilized, by the inverse agonist drug, in the inactive conformation to infect cells. We therefore hypothesized that an inactive CCR5 conformation mediates HIV infection and that activated conformations of CCR5 may not support HIV Env-directed membrane fusion. Consistent with our hypothesis, both of the constitutively active mutants with Lys in position 82 showed low Env-directed membrane fusion efficiency. The decreased fusion may result from decreased expression, as the Thr2.56(82)Lys/Arg6.32(225)Gln double mutation did not fully recover expression in the HOSCD4-Luc cells used for the fusion assay. Fusion remained lower than that mediated by wild type CCR5 after correction for receptor expression, but we cannot exclude threshold effects of receptor protein levels. In contrast, constitutively active CCR5 receptors with Pro in position 82 mediated membrane fusion similar 23977191 to that mediated by wild type CCR5. Our results suggest that CCR5 receptors that constitutively KN-93 (phosphate) activate IP signaling exist in at least two distinct conformations. One conformation, stabilized by Pro in position 82, supports Env-directed membrane fusion, whereas the other conformation, stabilized by Lys in position 82, does not. The different capacities of constitutively active CCR5 receptors to mediate membrane fusion may relate to the nature of their constitutive activity. Decreased expression of mutants with Lys in position 82 suggests constitutive receptor phosphorylation and activation of receptor sequestration pathways [61]. Constitutive internalization of CCR5 may target CCR5-Env complexes for degradation and thus inhibit the membrane fus.Ifferential expression suggests that constitutively active CCR5 mutants with Pro or Lys in position 2.56(82) may be stabilized in distinct conformations that are differentially sensitive to internalization and/or degradation. Distinct receptor conformations of the Thr2.56(82)Lys and Thr2.56(82)Pro CCR5 mutants is supported by the report that CHO cells expressing the Thr2.56(82)Pro CCR5 mutant exhibited a wild type-like chemotactic response to the chemokine ligand, RANTES, whereas cells expressing the Thr2.56(82)Lys mutant showed no chemotactic response [21]. The extended ternary complex model of receptor activation predicts that constitutively active receptors have increased agonistConstitutively Active CCR5 Receptor Conformationsbinding affinity, even in the absence of G protein [43]. However, some constitutively active receptors do not exhibit this phenotype [57,58]. We did not find significant changes in IC50 values for MIP-1b binding to constitutively active CCR5 mutants. Arias et al reported similar results for MIP-1b binding, but found that the Thr2.56(82)Lys mutation decreased affinity for the agonist chemokines, MIP-1a and RANTES, whereas the Thr2.56(82)Pro mutation had less effect [21]. Studies with small molecule drugs have suggested that the different chemokine ligands interact with distinct CCR5 conformations [59,60]. The Thr2.56(82)Lys mutation may selectively destabilize the ensembles of CCR5 conformations that preferentially bind MIP-1a and RANTES. The gp120 subunit of HIV Env is a CCR5 receptor agonist [6,7,8]. However, Env mediates membrane fusion in cells expressing mutant CCR5 receptors that do not support chemokine-stimulated signaling [23,24,25], suggesting that inactive conformations of CCR5 mediate membrane fusion. Furthermore, HIV isolates that are resistant to CCR5 blockers use drugoccupied CCR5 that is stabilized, by the inverse agonist drug, in the inactive conformation to infect cells. We therefore hypothesized that an inactive CCR5 conformation mediates HIV infection and that activated conformations of CCR5 may not support HIV Env-directed membrane fusion. Consistent with our hypothesis, both of the constitutively active mutants with Lys in position 82 showed low Env-directed membrane fusion efficiency. The decreased fusion may result from decreased expression, as the Thr2.56(82)Lys/Arg6.32(225)Gln double mutation did not fully recover expression in the HOSCD4-Luc cells used for the fusion assay. Fusion remained lower than that mediated by wild type CCR5 after correction for receptor expression, but we cannot exclude threshold effects of receptor protein levels. In contrast, constitutively active CCR5 receptors with Pro in position 82 mediated membrane fusion similar 23977191 to that mediated by wild type CCR5. Our results suggest that CCR5 receptors that constitutively activate IP signaling exist in at least two distinct conformations. One conformation, stabilized by Pro in position 82, supports Env-directed membrane fusion, whereas the other conformation, stabilized by Lys in position 82, does not. The different capacities of constitutively active CCR5 receptors to mediate membrane fusion may relate to the nature of their constitutive activity. Decreased expression of mutants with Lys in position 82 suggests constitutive receptor phosphorylation and activation of receptor sequestration pathways [61]. Constitutive internalization of CCR5 may target CCR5-Env complexes for degradation and thus inhibit the membrane fus.

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