The mice were anaesthetised using an intraperitoneal injection of both 50 mg

The mice were anaesthetised using an intraperitoneal injection of both 50 mg/g ketamine (Panpharma, Fougeres, France) and 5 mg/g xylazine (SigmaAldrich, Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, France). They were then chalIn Vivo MedChemExpress INK-128 Micro-CT Assessment of Airway RemodelingFigure 5. Bland-Altman analysis of manual and semi-automatic methods for peribronchial attenuation (PBA) measurements. A) Correlation of peribronchial mean attenuation (PBA) between the two methods. Dashed line represents the line of equality. Solid line corresponds to the regression line. B) Means of measurement between the two methods are plotted against their differences. Solid line corresponds to the mean difference. Dashed lines correspond to the mean difference 62 standard deviations. C) Means of measurement between the two methods are plotted against their standard deviations. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048493.gprevious VOI (bronchial lumen only) from the initial VOI (bronchial lumen and peribronchial space). The trachea and the mediastinum were 18325633 also manually subtracted. The resultant VOI displayed a mean attenuation value named PBA, which was recorded for further analysis. Then, normalized PBA was calculated as follow: 1-(PBA/TLA). Finally, using the software MIPAV (Medical Image Processing Analysis and Visualization, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA), we have applied to selected axial images of each group, a mathematical algorithm that calculated for each pixel (with an attenuation value “x”) a new attenuation value “y”, using this formula: y = 12(x/TLA).Bronchoalveolar LavageBronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained at Day 37, 77 or 112 by cannulating the trachea with a 24-gauge catheter. The right lung was lavaged twice (each aliquot 0.3 ml; NaCl 0.9 ). Total cell number was counted with a hemocytometer. Cytocentrifuge preparations (Cytospin 4, ThermoFisher Scientific, Courtaboeuf, France) were T614 stained with Diff-QuikH (VWR International, Strasbourg, France), adapted from Giemsa-May-Gru �nwald stain. Differential cell counting was performed using standard morphological criteria in which 400 cells were analyzed by a blinded investigator using standard haematological criteria. Total leukocyte number, percentage of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages were determined in each BAL fluid.HistologyRight and left lung tissue were dissected out, fixed with formaldehyde in inflation using intrapulmonary injection, and embedded in paraffin. Histological analysis was performed using 4-mm-thick lung slices stained with haematoxylin-eosin-safran and a modified Masson’s trichrome (half dilution of hematoxylin as compared to the standard staining procedure). Immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-mouse alpha smooth muscle actin antibody clone 1A4 (Dako, Trappes, France). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections were incubated in pretreatment buffer for antigen retrieval and were then reacted with a mouse anti-smooth muscle a-actin for 15 minutes. Immunoreaction was detected using Bond Polymer Refine Detection (Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany) on Bond TM max (A.Menarini Diagnostics, Firenze, Italy). Several quantitative parameters were assessed using Quancoul software (Quant’Image, Bordeaux, France) at magnifications of 1006 to 4006 [18]. We measured the basal membrane thickness, the wall area, the bronchial smooth muscle area and the peribronchial area. We also assessed the area of fibrosis within the peribronchial space and the number.The mice were anaesthetised using an intraperitoneal injection of both 50 mg/g ketamine (Panpharma, Fougeres, France) and 5 mg/g xylazine (SigmaAldrich, Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, France). They were then chalIn Vivo Micro-CT Assessment of Airway RemodelingFigure 5. Bland-Altman analysis of manual and semi-automatic methods for peribronchial attenuation (PBA) measurements. A) Correlation of peribronchial mean attenuation (PBA) between the two methods. Dashed line represents the line of equality. Solid line corresponds to the regression line. B) Means of measurement between the two methods are plotted against their differences. Solid line corresponds to the mean difference. Dashed lines correspond to the mean difference 62 standard deviations. C) Means of measurement between the two methods are plotted against their standard deviations. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048493.gprevious VOI (bronchial lumen only) from the initial VOI (bronchial lumen and peribronchial space). The trachea and the mediastinum were 18325633 also manually subtracted. The resultant VOI displayed a mean attenuation value named PBA, which was recorded for further analysis. Then, normalized PBA was calculated as follow: 1-(PBA/TLA). Finally, using the software MIPAV (Medical Image Processing Analysis and Visualization, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA), we have applied to selected axial images of each group, a mathematical algorithm that calculated for each pixel (with an attenuation value “x”) a new attenuation value “y”, using this formula: y = 12(x/TLA).Bronchoalveolar LavageBronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained at Day 37, 77 or 112 by cannulating the trachea with a 24-gauge catheter. The right lung was lavaged twice (each aliquot 0.3 ml; NaCl 0.9 ). Total cell number was counted with a hemocytometer. Cytocentrifuge preparations (Cytospin 4, ThermoFisher Scientific, Courtaboeuf, France) were stained with Diff-QuikH (VWR International, Strasbourg, France), adapted from Giemsa-May-Gru �nwald stain. Differential cell counting was performed using standard morphological criteria in which 400 cells were analyzed by a blinded investigator using standard haematological criteria. Total leukocyte number, percentage of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages were determined in each BAL fluid.HistologyRight and left lung tissue were dissected out, fixed with formaldehyde in inflation using intrapulmonary injection, and embedded in paraffin. Histological analysis was performed using 4-mm-thick lung slices stained with haematoxylin-eosin-safran and a modified Masson’s trichrome (half dilution of hematoxylin as compared to the standard staining procedure). Immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-mouse alpha smooth muscle actin antibody clone 1A4 (Dako, Trappes, France). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections were incubated in pretreatment buffer for antigen retrieval and were then reacted with a mouse anti-smooth muscle a-actin for 15 minutes. Immunoreaction was detected using Bond Polymer Refine Detection (Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany) on Bond TM max (A.Menarini Diagnostics, Firenze, Italy). Several quantitative parameters were assessed using Quancoul software (Quant’Image, Bordeaux, France) at magnifications of 1006 to 4006 [18]. We measured the basal membrane thickness, the wall area, the bronchial smooth muscle area and the peribronchial area. We also assessed the area of fibrosis within the peribronchial space and the number.

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